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Article Reference Impaired innate immune alveolar macrophage response and the predilection for COPD exacerbations.
Alveolar macrophages (AM) in COPD have fundamentally impaired responsiveness to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 ligands of non-typeable Haemophilus ...
Article Reference Rhinovirus attenuates non-typeable Hemophilus influenzae-stimulated IL-8 responses via TLR2-dependent degradation of IRAK-1.
Bacterial infections following rhinovirus (RV), a common cold virus, are well documented, but pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed animal ...
Article Reference [Regulation of expression, function, and inflammatory responses of innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) during inflammatory responses against infection].
Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) is one of the important innate immune receptors that play an important role in recognizing the pathogens and producing inflammatory ...
Article Reference Moraxella catarrhalis activates murine macrophages through multiple toll like receptors and has reduced clearance in lungs from TLR4 mutant mice.
Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram negative bacterium and a leading causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children. Several recent reports have provided strong ...
Article Reference PKCθ synergizes with TLR-dependent TRAF6 signaling pathway to upregulate MUC5AC mucin via CARMA1.
CARD-containing MAGUK protein 1 (CARMA1) plays a crucial role in regulating adaptive immune responses upon T-cell receptor (TCR) activation in T cells. Its ...
Article Reference Lipid motif of a bacterial antigen mediates immune responses via TLR2 signaling.
The cross-talk between the innate and the adaptive immune system is facilitated by the initial interaction of antigen with dendritic cells. As DCs express a ...
Article Reference The toll-Like receptor adaptor TRIF contributes to otitis media pathogenesis and recovery.
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling is crucial for innate immune responses to infection. The involvement of TLRs in otitis media (OM), the most prevalent ...
Article Reference TLR4-mediated induction of TLR2 signaling is critical in the pathogenesis and resolution of otitis media.
Otitis media is the most prevalent childhood disease in developed countries. The involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in otitis media pathophysiology has ...
Article Reference Streptococcus pneumoniae synergizes with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to induce inflammation via upregulating TLR2.
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in mediating inflammatory/immune responses against bacterial pathogens in lung. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. ...
Article Reference Induction of beta defensin 2 by NTHi requires TLR2 mediated MyD88 and IRAK-TRAF6-p38MAPK signaling pathway in human middle ear epithelial cells.
All mucosal epithelia, including those of the tubotympanium, are secreting a variety of antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMs). In our previous study, ...
Article Reference Lipooligosaccharides containing phosphorylcholine delay pulmonary clearance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) causes pulmonary infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other mucociliary clearance ...
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae induces COX-2 and PGE2 expression in lung epithelial cells via activation of p38 MAPK and NF-kappa B.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important respiratory pathogen implicated as an infectious trigger in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ...
Article Reference The bacterium, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, enhances host antiviral response by inducing Toll-like receptor 7 expression: evidence for negative regulation of host anti-viral response by CYLD.
The incidence of mixed viral/bacterial infections has increased recently because of the dramatic increase in antibiotic-resistant strains, the emergence of new ...
Article Reference Toll-like receptor 2-dependent NF-kappaB activation is involved in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 up-regulation in the spiral ligament fibrocytes of the inner ear.
Inner ear dysfunction secondary to chronic otitis media (OM), including high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss or vertigo, is not uncommon. Although chronic ...
Article Reference Conserved nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-derived TLR2-binding lipopeptides synergize with IFN-beta to increase cytokine production by resident murine and human alveolar macrophages.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is strongly associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which often coincide with viral ...
Article Reference The transforming growth factor-beta-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacteria via a dual mechanism involving functional cooperation with NF-kappaB and MAPK phosphatase 1-dependent negative cross-talk with p38 MAPK.
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway represents an important signaling pathway involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, ...
Article Reference The MyD88-dependent, but not the MyD88-independent, pathway of TLR4 signaling is important in clearing nontypeable haemophilus influenzae from the mouse lung.
TLRs are important for the recognition of conserved motifs expressed by invading bacteria. TLR4 is the signaling receptor for LPS, the major proinflammatory ...
Article Reference Epidermal growth factor receptor acts as a negative regulator for bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced Toll-like receptor 2 expression via an Src-dependent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes, including cell growth, ...
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae lipoprotein P6 induces MUC5AC mucin transcription via TLR2-TAK1-dependent p38 MAPK-AP1 and IKKbeta-IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB signaling pathways.
Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections. The molecular mechanisms underlying up-regulation of mucin in NTHi ...
Article Reference Inhibition of p38 MAPK by glucocorticoids via induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 enhances nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced expression of toll-like receptor 2.
Despite the importance of glucocorticoids in suppressing immune and inflammatory responses, their role in enhancing host immune and defense response against ...
Article Reference Transforming growth factor-beta -Smad signaling pathway cooperates with NF-kappa B to mediate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced MUC2 mucin transcription.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and related factors are multifunctional cytokines that regulate diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, ...
Article Reference Glucocorticoids synergistically enhance nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced Toll-like receptor 2 expression via a negative cross-talk with p38 MAP kinase.
The recognition of invading microbes followed by the induction of effective innate immune response is crucial for host survival. Human surface epithelial cells ...
Article Reference Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein increases toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common cause of respiratory tract infections. This study investigated the ability of NTHi to bind ...
Article Reference Activation of NF-kappa B by nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae is mediated by toll-like receptor 2-TAK1-dependent NIK-IKK alpha /beta-I kappa B alpha and MKK3/6-p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways in epithelial cells.
Nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important human pathogen in both children and adults. In children, it causes otitis media, the most common ...
Article Reference TBX21 participates in innate immune response by regulating Toll-like receptor 2 expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae infections.
Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) plays an important role in the development of invasive diseases, and is also critically ...