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Article Reference Impaired innate immune alveolar macrophage response and the predilection for COPD exacerbations.
Alveolar macrophages (AM) in COPD have fundamentally impaired responsiveness to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 ligands of non-typeable Haemophilus ...
Article Reference Loss of Siglec-14 reduces the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. COPD exacerbation, or episodic worsening of symptoms, often results in ...
Article Reference Zinc oxide nanoparticles impair bacterial clearance by macrophages.
The extensive development of nanoparticles (NPs) and their widespread employment in daily life have led to an increase in environmental concentrations of ...
Article Reference [Regulation of expression, function, and inflammatory responses of innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) during inflammatory responses against infection].
Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) is one of the important innate immune receptors that play an important role in recognizing the pathogens and producing inflammatory ...
Article Reference Quorum signaling and sensing by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Quorum signals are diffusible factors produced by bacteria that coordinate communal responses. For nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a series of ...
Article Reference Moraxella catarrhalis activates murine macrophages through multiple toll like receptors and has reduced clearance in lungs from TLR4 mutant mice.
Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram negative bacterium and a leading causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children. Several recent reports have provided strong ...
Article Reference ERK2-dependent activation of c-Jun is required for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced CXCL2 upregulation in inner ear fibrocytes.
The inner ear, composed of the cochlea and the vestibule, is a specialized sensory organ for hearing and balance. Although the inner ear has been known as an ...
Article Reference Synergistic and feedback signaling mechanisms in the regulation of inflammation in respiratory infections.
Pneumonia, the most typical and frequent lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), is a leading cause of health problems in the United States. Bacteria ...
Article Reference PKCθ synergizes with TLR-dependent TRAF6 signaling pathway to upregulate MUC5AC mucin via CARMA1.
CARD-containing MAGUK protein 1 (CARMA1) plays a crucial role in regulating adaptive immune responses upon T-cell receptor (TCR) activation in T cells. Its ...
Article Reference RbsB (NTHI_0632) mediates quorum signal uptake in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 86-028NP.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is a respiratory commensal and opportunistic pathogen, which persists within biofilms on airway mucosal surfaces. For ...
Article Reference Lipid motif of a bacterial antigen mediates immune responses via TLR2 signaling.
The cross-talk between the innate and the adaptive immune system is facilitated by the initial interaction of antigen with dendritic cells. As DCs express a ...
Article Reference Activation of the transforming growth factor beta pathway in bacterial otitis media.
Granulation tissue is common in otitis media (OM), yet little is known about the signaling pathways in the formation of granulation tissue in response to ...
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third leading cause of death in the world by 2020. It is characterized by airflow ...
Article Reference ArcA-regulated glycosyltransferase lic2B promotes complement evasion and pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Signaling mechanisms used by Haemophilus influenzae to adapt to conditions it encounters during stages of infection and pathogenesis are not well understood. ...
Article Reference Evidence for a non-replicative intracellular stage of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae in epithelial cells.
Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative, non-capsulated human bacterial pathogen, a major cause of a repertoire of respiratory infections, ...
Article Reference Cigarette smoke inhibits airway epithelial cell innate immune responses to bacteria.
The human upper respiratory tract, including the nasopharynx, is colonized by a diverse array of microorganisms. While the host generally exists in harmony ...
Article Reference Toll-like receptor 9 is not important for host defense against Haemophilus influenzae.
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common Gram-negative respiratory pathogen. We demonstrated previously that myeloid differentiation ...
Article Reference The toll-Like receptor adaptor TRIF contributes to otitis media pathogenesis and recovery.
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling is crucial for innate immune responses to infection. The involvement of TLRs in otitis media (OM), the most prevalent ...
Article Reference TLR4-mediated induction of TLR2 signaling is critical in the pathogenesis and resolution of otitis media.
Otitis media is the most prevalent childhood disease in developed countries. The involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in otitis media pathophysiology has ...
Article Reference Regulation of bacteria-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins.
Direct interaction between bacteria and epithelial cells may initiate or amplify the airway response through induction of epithelial defense gene expression by ...
Article Reference Streptococcus pneumoniae synergizes with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to induce inflammation via upregulating TLR2.
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in mediating inflammatory/immune responses against bacterial pathogens in lung. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. ...
Article Reference Induction of beta defensin 2 by NTHi requires TLR2 mediated MyD88 and IRAK-TRAF6-p38MAPK signaling pathway in human middle ear epithelial cells.
All mucosal epithelia, including those of the tubotympanium, are secreting a variety of antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMs). In our previous study, ...
Article Reference The bacterium, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, enhances host antiviral response by inducing Toll-like receptor 7 expression: evidence for negative regulation of host anti-viral response by CYLD.
The incidence of mixed viral/bacterial infections has increased recently because of the dramatic increase in antibiotic-resistant strains, the emergence of new ...
Article Reference Opposing roles of PAK2 and PAK4 in synergistic induction of MUC5AC mucin by bacterium NTHi and EGF.
Mucin, a major component of mucus, plays a critical role in host mucosal defense response by participating in mucociliary clearance. However, if overproduced, ...
Article Reference Jun N-terminal protein kinase enhances middle ear mucosal proliferation during bacterial otitis media.
Mucosal hyperplasia is a characteristic component of otitis media. The present study investigated the participation of signaling via the Jun N-terminal protein ...
Article Reference TGF-beta induces p65 acetylation to enhance bacteria-induced NF-kappaB activation.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members are multifunctional growth factors involved in regulating diverse biological processes. Despite the ...
Article Reference Synergistic activation of NF-kappaB by nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is mediated by CK2, IKKbeta-IkappaBalpha, and p38 MAPK.
In review of the past studies on NF-kappaB regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-kappaB is activated by a single inducer at a time. ...
Article Reference The transforming growth factor-beta-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacteria via a dual mechanism involving functional cooperation with NF-kappaB and MAPK phosphatase 1-dependent negative cross-talk with p38 MAPK.
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway represents an important signaling pathway involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, ...
Article Reference Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells.
We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) ...
Article Reference The MyD88-dependent, but not the MyD88-independent, pathway of TLR4 signaling is important in clearing nontypeable haemophilus influenzae from the mouse lung.
TLRs are important for the recognition of conserved motifs expressed by invading bacteria. TLR4 is the signaling receptor for LPS, the major proinflammatory ...