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Article Reference Developing a nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) vaccine.
There is a current high demand for nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) vaccines. Various options for the composition of such vaccines are possible. Decisions about the vaccine composition have to take into account the antigenic variability of NTHi, so even complex immunogens such as whole bacteria would preferentially have a tailor-made antigenic composition. We will present a summary of NTHi vaccine development, describing research efforts from SmithKline Beecham and other laboratories. Currently, major (P1, P2, P4, P5) and minor (P6, D15, TbpA/B, ellipsis) outer membrane proteins, LPS, adhesins (HMW, Hia, pili, P5) are being studied. Preclinical results with LPD, P5 (LB1) and OMP26 from our laboratories will be described including the use of animal models of otitis and lung infection.
Article Reference Enhancement of clearance of bacteria from murine lungs by immunization with detoxified lipooligosaccharide from Moraxella catarrhalis conjugated to proteins.
Moraxella catarrhalis strain 25238 detoxified lipooligosaccharide (dLOS)-protein conjugates induced a significant rise of bactericidal anti-LOS antibodies in animals. This study reports the effect of active or passive immunization with the conjugates or their antiserum on pulmonary clearance of M. catarrhalis in an aerosol challenge mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with dLOS-tetanus toxoid (dLOS-TT), dLOS-high-molecular-weight proteins (dLOS-HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), or nonconjugated materials in Ribi adjuvant and then challenged with M. catarrhalis strain 25238 or O35E or NTHi strain 12. Immunization with dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP generated a significant rise of serum anti-LOS immunoglobulin G and 68% and 35 to 41% reductions of bacteria in lungs compared with the control (P<0.01) following challenge with homologous strain 25238 and heterologous strain O35E, respectively. Serum anti-LOS antibody levels correlated with its bactericidal titers against M. catarrhalis and bacterial CFU in lungs. Additionally, immunization with dLOS-HMP generated a 54% reduction of NTHi strain 12 compared with the control (P<0.01). Passive immunization with a rabbit antiserum against dLOS-TT conferred a significant reduction of strain 25238 CFU in lungs in a dose- and time-dependent pattern compared with preimmune serum-treated mice. Kinetic examination of lung tissue sections demonstrated that antiserum-treated mice initiated and offset inflammatory responses more rapidly than preimmune serum-treated mice. These data indicate that LOS antibodies (whether active or passive) play a major role in the enhancement of pulmonary clearance of different test strains of M. catarrhalis in mice. In addition, dLOS-HMP is a potential candidate for a bivalent vaccine against M. catarrhalis and NTHi infections.
Article Reference Variability of outer membrane protein P1 and its evaluation as a vaccine candidate against experimental otitis media due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an unambiguous, multifaceted approach.
Candidate vaccine antigens for preventing otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) should possess one or more conserved epitopes. We sought to evaluate the candidacy of P1, a surface-expressed outer membrane protein knowing that this antigen is subject to diversifying selection. Therefore, we selected NTHI strains from among >500 phylogenically variant isolates representative of the diversity found in natural populations of H. influenzae. Twenty-three variants of P1 (</=95% similarity) were identified among 42 strains. When chinchillas were immunized with recombinant P1 (rP1) obtained from one of these isolates (BCH-3), all animals developed antibodies specific for rP1. Immunized animals were protected against disease when challenged with BCH-3, but not with an ompP1 mutant of BCH-3 or a strain (BCH-2) possessing a heterologous P1 (91% identity). We conclude that (i) while P1 induces protection against NTHI-mediated otitis media, development of a polyvalent vaccine reflecting the variability of P1 would be necessary to construct an efficacious vaccine and (ii) use of a phylogenically characterized collection of representative isolates in concert with gene sequencing, cloning, gene inactivation, and animal testing offers an efficient, rational, and rigorous strategy for evaluating the potential problems associated with variability of vaccine targets and specificity of related immune responses.
Article Reference Induction of specific immunoglobulin A and Th2 immune responses to P6 outer membrane protein of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in middle ear mucosa by intranasal immunization.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is a major pathogen of otitis media. One of the outer membrane proteins of NTHI, P6, is an antigen common to all strains and is considered as a candidate for mucosal vaccine. To elucidate the possibility of developing a nasal vaccine against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) and to investigate mucosal immune responses in the middle ear, mice were immunized intranasally with the P6 outer membrane protein of NTHI, and P6-specific immune responses in the middle ear mucosa were examined. Mice were given with P6 and cholera toxin intranasally as an adjuvant on days 0, 7, and 14 and were killed on day 21. The P6-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titer in ear wash was significantly elevated. Mononuclear cells were isolated from middle ear mucosa, and an increase in P6-specific IgA-producing cells was shown with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. In addition, an increase in memory T cells in middle ear mucosa was detected with flow cytometric analysis after intranasal immunization. Moreover, in vitro stimulation with P6 resulted in proliferation of purified CD4(+) T cells from immunized mice, and these T cells expressed Th2 cytokine mRNA. These results indicate that P6-specific IgA-B-cell immune responses and selected Th2 cytokine expressing Th cells were induced in middle ear mucosa by intranasal immunization. These findings suggest that a nasal vaccine is useful for preventing otitis media with effusion.
Article Reference Effects of intranasal immunization on protective immunity against otitis media.
It has been reported that intranasal immunization can induce mucosal immune responses. However, the efficacy of intranasal immunization on otitis media caused by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is not yet elucidated. Mice were intranasally, orally, intratracheally or intraperitoneally immunized with outer membrane protein (OMP) isolated from NTHi, and antigen-specific immune responses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immuno-spot assay (ELISPOT). Cytokine production from splenic CD4+ T cells was examined by ELISA. Following the immunization, the clearance of NTHi from the nasal and nasopharyngeal cavity was examined. OMP-specific IgA antibody titers in nasal washes and the numbers of specific IgA-producing cells in nasal passages were significantly increased in intranasally immunized mice. Cytokine analysis showed that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukins IL-6 and IL-10 were predominantly produced from CD4+ T cells. The clearance of NTHi was significantly enhanced in the intranasal immunization group. Intranasal immunization is an effective vaccination regimen for the induction of OMP-specific mucosal immune responses.
Article Reference Nasal immunization induces Haemophilus influenzae-specific Th1 and Th2 responses with mucosal IgA and systemic IgG antibodies for protective immunity.
To determine the efficacy of a mucosal vaccine against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), mice were immunized nasally, orally, intratracheally, or intraperitoneally with NTHi antigen together with cholera toxin. Antigen-specific IgA antibody titers in nasal washes and the numbers of antigen-specific IgA-producing cells in nasal passages showed the greatest increases in mice immunized nasally. Cytokine analysis showed that interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 were induced by nasal immunization, suggesting that Th2- and Th1-type cells were generated. Furthermore, bacterial clearance of a homologous strain of NTHi from the nasal tract was significantly enhanced in the nasal immunization group. These findings suggest that nasal immunization is an effective vaccination regimen for the induction of antigen-specific mucosal immune responses, which reduce the colonization of NTHi in the nasal tract.
Article Reference Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfection.
Three separate studies, two involving active-immunization regimens and one involving a passive-transfer protocol, were conducted to initially screen and ultimately more fully assess several nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane proteins or their derivatives for their relative protective efficacy in chinchilla models of otitis media. Initial screening of these antigens (P5-fimbrin, lipoprotein D, and P6), delivered singly or in combination with either Freund's adjuvant or alum, indicated that augmented bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx, the middle ears, or both anatomical sites could be induced by parenteral immunization with P5-fimbrin combined with lipoprotein D, lipoprotein D alone, or the synthetic chimeric peptide LB1 (derived from P5-fimbrin), respectively. Data from a second study, wherein chinchillas were immunized with LB1 or lipoprotein D, each delivered with alum, again indicated that clearance of nontypeable H. influenzae could be augmented by immunization with either of these immunogens; however, when this adjuvant was used, both antibody titers in serum and efficacy were reduced. A third study was performed to investigate passive delivery of antisera directed against either LB1, lipoprotein D, nonacylated lipoprotein D, or a unique recombinant peptide designated LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3. The last three antiserum pools were generated by using the combined adjuvant of alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A. Passive transfer of sera specific for LB1 or LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 to adenovirus-compromised chinchillas, prior to intranasal challenge with nontypeable H. influenzae, significantly reduced the severity of signs and incidence of otitis media which developed (P </= 0.001). Collectively, these data indicate the continued merit of further developing LB1 and LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 as components of vaccines for otitis media.
Article Reference Killed whole bacterial cells, a mucosal delivery system for the induction of immunity in the respiratory tract and middle ear: an overview.
Infectious diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with mucosal membranes being the most frequent portals of entry of pathogenic micro-organisms. This has prompted studies aimed at the development of vaccination protocols that would lead to an increased protection of mucosae through an understanding of the common mucosal immune system as an immune communication network between mucosal sites. Recent studies have suggested that preferential sub-networks exist within the system and these studies have exploited the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)-lung sub-network in the development of oral vaccine strategies for infections of the respiratory tract and middle ear. Mucosal immunization with whole formalin killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), Branhamella catarrhalis, nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) results in enhanced homologous bacterial clearance from the lung of immune animals challenged with live bacteria. These studies have been extended to the middle ear where similar results have been observed for NTHi and Spn. Mechanisms responsible for inducing enhanced bacterial clearance from the airways include opsonising antibody, antigen specific CD4+ T helper cells, cytokine responses and recruitment of activated polymophonuclear neutrophils. The mechanisms induced by immunization which stimulates the immune system to rapidly mobilise both innate and specific immune responses during infection are the subject of ongoing research.
Article Reference Kinetics of inflammatory cytokines in the clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae from the lung.
Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were measured from the time of infection to the time of complete clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) from the lung in immune and non-immune rats. Mucosal immunization facilitated production of significant levels of TNF-alpha as early as 30 min post-pulmonary challenge with NTHi in immune animals. Following the peak at 2 h, rapid decline of TNF-alpha levels occurred from the alveolar spaces. Levels of TNF-alpha in non-immunized animals increased at a slower rate, peaked at a lower concentration and were slower to decline. The significantly larger number of macrophages seen in the immune animals at 1 h after bacterial challenge could partially account for the higher levels of TNF-alpha. Interferon-gamma was not detected in immune or non-immune rats at any time point before NTHi clearance after pulmonary challenge. Study of the kinetics of TNF-alpha release demonstrates that immunized animals control the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines more effectively than non-immunized animals for enhanced clearance of bacterial infection from the lungs.
Article Reference Characteristics of the immunological response in the clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae from the lung.
Clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) from the respiratory tract was investigated, over time, in immune and non-immune rats. A triphasic pattern characterized the clearance of bacteria from the lungs. Mucosal immunization enhanced bacterial clearance from the lungs in each of the three phases compared with clearance from non-immunized animals. Total clearance of bacteria was observed from lung tissue by 12 h in immune animals and 24 h in non-immune animals. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes not only arrived earlier and initially in greater numbers, but disappeared earlier in immune animals (peaking at 8 h post-challenge), compared with non-immune animals (peaking at 12h post-challenge). Systemically derived and locally produced NTHi-specific IgA and IgG correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance during the secondary phase. This model demonstrates that immunized animals up-regulate and resolve inflammatory responses to pulmonary infection more rapidly than the non-immunized controls.
Article Reference Vaccination against middle-ear bacterial and viral pathogens.
Considerable evidence suggests that otitis media (OM) can be prevented by systemic immunization. Building on the highly effective H. influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine technology, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are being developed to circumvent T-independence of these antigens and provide durable immunity at a very young age. Several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are currently in clinical testing. Potential vaccine antigens of nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi) include OMP, HMW, pili, and fimbriae. Several OMPs show extensive homology among strains, but surface, determinants of others are highly variable so that antibodies to surface epitopes of one strain will not bind to surface epitopes of another. Several M. catarrhalis OMP and HMW antigens have vaccine potential, but no functional correlates of protection have been identified, and there is no clear evidence that antibody to M. catarrhalis is associated with OM protection. Attenuated viral vaccines also hold promise of preventing childhood OM. Two clinical trials with killed influenza vaccines have shown a significant reduction in OM among vaccine recipients compared to control children during periods of high influenza disease activity in the community. Passive immunoprophylaxis also has potential for preventing OM. Human bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin was protective for pneumococcal OM in children and in the chinchilla OM model. High-dose respiratory syncytial virus-enriched immunoglobulin reduced the incidence and severity of RSV lower respiratory tract infection in high-risk children. Passive immunoprophylaxis may also be effective in children with specific immune deficiencies, such as IgG2 deficiency, and patients who fail to respond to vaccines.
Article Reference Local and systemic antibody levels against protein D of Haemophilus influenzae following immunization and infection in rats.
Outer membrane proteins of Haemophilus influenzae are considered as possible vaccine candidates against non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi), a major cause of respiratory infections. Here, we study local and systemic antibody responses to protein D, a well-conserved 42-kDa membrane protein, following local and systemic immunization, and experimental acute otitis media (AOM) with NTHi and H. influenzae type b (Hib) in rats. Animals that were challenged and rechallenged in the middle ear with Hib strain Minn A or NTHi strain 1161 developed IgG and IgA antibodies in serum but not in middle ear lavage (MEL) material or saliva. In contrast, following per oral immunization with NTHi strain 772 and Escherichia coli JM83 (pHIC348) (containing protein D gene) and, to a lesser degree after intranasal inoculation of NTHi strain 772, high saliva IgA antibodies to protein D developed, but there was no rise in antibodies to protein D in the MEL material or the sera of these animals. These results show that protein D can elicit different systemic and local antibody responses depending on the site of delivery and the form of administration. Furthermore, experimental AOM with NTHi and Hib induces systemic IgG and IgA antibodies to protein D but fails to induce a mucosal immune response.
Article Reference Immunological aspects of otitis media: present views on possibilities of immunoprophylaxis of acute otitis media in infants and children.
The article reviews, based on current knowledge of immunological events affecting the middle ear, the possibilities and prospects for the prevention of otitis media (OM) by immunologic measures. While pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccines proved not to be effective against infant acute otitis media (AOM), pneumococcal conjugate vaccines provide good immunogenicity even in infants, and call for trials with better prospects of clinical efficacy. The other future approaches currently under development are vaccines against nontypable Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis, anti-viral immunoprophylaxis, combinations of the above alternatives, or passive immunization. Also, the use of new routes or ways of immunization are under study. Furthermore, the ways to modify the present treatment practices of AOM to favour good immunologic responses in infants and children must be studied.
Article Reference Conservation of immune responses to proteins isolated by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the outer membrane of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Outer membrane proteins P2, P4, and P6 and two with molecular masses of 26 and 28 kDa have been purified from a strain of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by a preparative form of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Outer membrane protein P6, with a molecular mass of 16 kDa (determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]-PAGE) was purified by both native PAGE and SDS-PAGE from three strains of nontypeable H. influenzae and one strain of type b H. influenzae. The same conditions were required for purification from each strain. The suitability of proteins isolated by these methods was assessed by studying the immune response of rats immunized with P6 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant into the Peyer's patches. P6 purified by either native PAGE or SDS-PAGE did not differ significantly from P6 purified by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography in the ability to enhance pulmonary clearance of live bacteria. This study also investigated the effects of SDS on P2 immunological responses in vivo and the effects of the reagents Zwittergent and sodium lauryl sarcosinate on outer membrane protein lymphocyte-proliferative responses in vitro. It was found that the presence of SDS in the immunization emulsion enhanced the antigen-specific cell-mediated response but suppressed the antigen-specific antibody responses. The presence of residual traces of Zwittergent in an outer membrane protein preparation inhibited antigen-specific cell-mediated proliferation, whereas extraction of outer membrane proteins with sodium lauryl sarcosinate did not inhibit antigen-specific proliferation. These results demonstrate that preparative PAGE is a suitable method for the purification of proteins from the outer membrane of H. influenzae required for investigation of their immunological significance as vaccine candidates and that traces of reagents used during protein purification may play an important role in determining the success of in vivo and in vitro studies.
Article Reference Role of fimbriae expressed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in pathogenesis of and protection against otitis media and relatedness of the fimbrin subunit to outer membrane protein A.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a primary pathogen in both acute otitis media (OM) and chronic OM, yet the pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Although fimbriae have been observed on all clinical OM isolates examined to date, their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, the gene which codes for the fimbrial subunit protein (fimbrin) in nontypeable H. influenzae 1128 was isolated, cloned, and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the fimbrin gene was found to contain an open reading frame of 1,077 bp which would encode a mature fimbrin protein consisting of 338 amino acid with a calculated molecular mass of 36.4 kDa. The translated amino acid sequence was found to be homologous with various OmpA proteins of other gram-negative bacteria, and algorithmic analysis predicted that this protein is organized as a coiled coil. To directly test whether fimbriae are involved in pathogenesis, the fimbrin gene was disrupted, and the biological consequences of disruption were absence of both expression of the fimbrial appendage and the specific immunogold labeling thereof with antisera directed against isolated fimbrial protein, reduced adherence to human oropharyngeal cells in vitro, augmented clearance from the tympanum post-transbullar inoculation, and significantly reduced induction of OM post-intranasal inoculation in a chinchilla model compared with the fimbriated parent strain. We additionally find that either passive immunization or active immunization against isolated fimbrial protein confers partial protection against transbullar challenge. A Western blot (immunoblot) indicated a degree of serological relatedness among fimbrin proteins of 15 nontypeable and type b isolates. These data suggest that fimbrin could be useful as a component of a vaccine to protect against OM.
Article Reference Chinchilla model of experimental otitis media for study of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae vaccine efficacy.
Article Reference Evaluation of pilus vaccines for prevention of experimental otitis media caused by nontypable Haemophilus influenzae.
Article Reference Occult bacteremia with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
A 2-year-old boy had occult bacteremia with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae 6 weeks after receiving H. influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine. Evaluation of his host defense was normal. As determined by outer membrane protein electrophoresis and Southern hybridization analysis, this strain was not related to type b strains. Its virulence in rats was similar to that of another nontypeable strain and less than that of a type b strain.
Article Reference Use of the Chinchilla model to evaluate the vaccinogenic potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis filamentous hemagglutinin-like proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2.
Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and 10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis-host interactions.
Article Reference Nasopharyngeal microbial interactions in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.
The nasopharynx of children is often colonised by microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that can cause infections including pneumonia and otitis media. In this complex environment, bacteria and viruses may impact each other through antagonistic as well as synergistic interactions. Vaccination may alter colonisation dynamics, evidenced by the rise in non-vaccine serotypes following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Discovery of an inverse relationship between S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage generated concern that pneumococcal vaccination could increase S. aureus carriage and disease. Here we review data on co-colonisation of pathogens in the nasopharynx, focusing on S. pneumoniae and the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. Thus far, pneumococcal vaccination has not had a sustained impact on S. aureus carriage but it is associated with an increase in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media aetiology. Advances in bacterial and viral detection methodologies have facilitated research in nasopharyngeal microbiology and will aid investigation of potential vaccine-induced changes, particularly when baseline studies can be conducted prior to pneumococcal vaccine introduction.