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Article Reference Immunogenicity of a 2-dose priming and booster vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine.
The immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was determined following a simplified 2-dose priming and the more commonly employed 3-dose priming both followed by a booster dose.
Article Reference Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine: PHiD-CV.
At the beginning of a new century, we have gained significant achievements against pneumococcal infections by using conjugated pneumococcal vaccines. In January 2009, the EMEA issued a positive opinion about, and recommended the approval of, GlaxoSmithKline's pediatric pneumococcal candidate vaccine, which is indicated for active immunization against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children from 6 weeks up to 2 years of age. The approved 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) contains all serotypes in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) plus serotypes 1, 5 and 7F. Protein D from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is the carrier protein for eight serotypes, while tetanus and diphtheria toxins are in the carrier proteins for the remaining two serotypes. It has also been proved that PHiD-CV is immunogenic, safe and well-tolerated in children. This vaccine can be coadministered with routinely used pediatric vaccines. Noninferiority criteria of PHiD-CV compared with PCV-7 were established in shared serotypes, except for serotypes 6B and 23F, and PHiD-CV is immunogenic for additional serotypes as assessed by the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations. PHiD-CV is also immunogenic for ten serotypes as assessed by post-primary and post-booster dose opsonophagocytic activity responses. Vaccine efficacy against IPD and other conditions should be monitored for shared serotypes and also additional serotypes during the postmarketing period. Optimal scheduling, safety and immunogenicity data in children with different risk factors for IPD, or whether it will provide herd immunity, are the questions waiting for answers in the postmarketing period. Further studies are needed to assess the potential advantages of protein D as a carrier and the potential efficacy of this new vaccine against H. influenzae. The potential public health efficacy of PHiD-CV in low-income countries, where IPD and pneumonia are a major public health problem, is a major concern.
Article Reference 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae PD conjugate vaccine: Synflorix.
The global burden of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high. The licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM, Prevenar/Prevnar) has successfully reduced invasive disease in the USA, but serotype coverage is incomplete and some evidence suggests that serotype replacement has occurred. Recently, a new 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) protein D (PD) conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix) has been licensed in more than 40 countries, including Europe, for the prevention of invasive disease and acute otitis media (AOM) due to pneumococcus in infants and children. PHiD-CV is immunogenic in infants when administered as a three-dose primary vaccination in a range of schedules and has a safety profile comparable to that of 7vCRM. Additional serotypes in PHiD-CV (1, 5 and 7F) increase overall serotype coverage and improve coverage in specific age groups and against specific disease syndromes. The use of the PD carrier, which provided protection against AOM caused by NTHi in a large efficacy trial testing a prototype of the final vaccine formulation, suggests that PHiD-CV will also provide some protection against AOM due to NTHi.
Article Reference Effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials.
Although fever is part of the normal inflammatory process after immunisation, prophylactic antipyretic drugs are sometimes recommended to allay concerns of high fever and febrile convulsion. We assessed the effect of prophylactic administration of paracetamol at vaccination on infant febrile reaction rates and vaccine responses.
Article Reference Immunogenicity of routinely used childhood vaccines when coadministered with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV).
The choice of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D as main carrier protein in the candidate 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals), was driven in part to avoid carrier-mediated suppression and possible bystander interference with coadministered vaccines. Immunogenicity data from 3 primary and 2 booster vaccination studies were assessed for possible impacts of PHiD-CV coadministration on immune responses to routinely administered childhood vaccines, in comparison to 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) coadministration.
Article Reference Immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) when coadministered with different neisseria meningitidis serogroup C conjugate vaccines.
Immunogenicity of the candidate 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was assessed when coadministered with other routine pediatric vaccines including different Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C conjugate vaccines.
Article Reference Immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) compared to the licensed 7vCRM vaccine.
The immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was assessed and compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM).
Article Reference Safety and reactogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) when coadministered with routine childhood vaccines.
Licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) is usually coadministered with combination vaccines in pediatric immunization programs. Reactogenicity and safety after primary and booster vaccination with a novel 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in comparison with 7vCRM, both coadministered with commonly used pediatric vaccines, was evaluated in 5 clinical studies.
Article Reference Low rate of nasopharyngeal carriage and high rate of ampicillin resistance for Haemophilus influenzae among healthy children younger than 5 years old in northern Taiwan.
Surveillance data of colonization by Haemophilus influenzae in Taiwan are lacking. This study aimed to define the nasopharyngeal carriage rate of H. influenzae among children younger than 5 years in northern Taiwan, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility, serotype and the clonal relationship of these isolates.
Article Reference Mouse models for the study of mucosal vaccination against otitis media.
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in humans. The pathogenesis of OM involves nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and retrograde ascension of the pathogen up the Eustachian tube into the middle ear (ME). Due to increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need for vaccines to prevent infections caused by the most common causes of bacterial OM, including nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Current vaccine strategies aim to diminish bacterial NP carriage, thereby reducing the likelihood of developing acute OM. To be effective, vaccination should induce local mucosal immunity both in the ME and in the NP. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that the intranasal route of vaccination is particularly effective at inducing immune responses in the nasal passage and ME for protection against OM. The mouse is increasingly used in these models, because of the availability of murine reagents and the existence of technology to manipulate murine models of disease immunologically and genetically. Previous studies confirmed the suitability of the mouse as a model for inflammatory processes in acute OM. Here, we discuss various murine models of OM and review the applicability of these models to assess the efficacy of mucosal vaccination and the mechanisms responsible for protection. In addition, we discuss various mucosal vaccine antigens, mucosal adjuvants and mucosal delivery systems.
Article Reference Local application of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhances nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-specific mucosal IgA responses in the middle ear.
Nasal vaccination with P6 protein of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) may be effective for the induction of NTHi-specific protective immunity in the middle ear and middle ear application of CpG ODN may possibly be a new treatment strategy for otitis media (OM).
Article Reference Strain-specific pulmonary defense achieved after repeated airway immunizations with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae in a mouse model.
Strain-specific immune responses may play a critical role in the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and the outer membrane protein P2 is one of surface antigens of NTHi, which may contribute to the strain-specific protective immunity. We examined whether repeated airway immunizations with killed-NTHi strains bearing different P2 molecules were capable of inducing protective immunity against homologous or heterologous strains in the lungs of a mouse model. Three different strains of NTHi were used in this study. Three serial intratracheal (IT) immunizations of a single strain or three different strains of NTHi led to the production of cross-reactive immunoglobulins G and A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Three serial IT immunizations with a single strain enhanced the bacterial clearance of the homologous strain in the lungs, but no enhancement of bacterial clearance was found with three serial IT immunizations of heterologous strains. The enhancement in bacterial clearance, therefore, appears to be primarily strain-specific. Enhanced bacterial clearance of a heterologous strain was also found after three serial IT immunizations of a single strain among two of the three strains employed for bacterial challenge. These findings suggest that P2 molecules and surface antigens other than P2 are involved in the development of pulmonary defense against NTHi in mice. Our data may explain, in part, why patients with COPD experience recurrent NTHi infections.
Article Reference Prospects for a vaccine against otitis media.
Otitis media is a major cause of morbidity in 80% of all children less than 3 years of age and often goes undiagnosed in the general population. There is evidence to suggest that the incidence of otitis media is increasing. The major cause of otitis media is infection of the middle ear with microbes from the nasopharynx. The anatomical orientation of the eustachian tube, in association with a number of risk factors, predisposes infants and young children to the infection. Bacteria are responsible for approximately 70% of cases of acute otitis media, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis predominating as the causative agents. The respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza and influenza, account for 30% of acute otitis media cases. Over the past decade, there has been a profound increase in the reported resistance to antibiotics, which, with increased disease burden, has focussed attention on vaccine development for otitis media. A polymicrobial formulation containing antigens from all major pathogens would have the greatest potential to deliver a sustained reduction in the disease burden globally. The disappointing outcomes for otitis media seen with the polysaccharide pneumococcal conjugate vaccine have raised major challenges for the vaccination strategy. Clearly, more knowledge is required concerning immune mechanisms in the middle ear, as well as vaccine formulations containing antigens that are more representative of the polymicrobial nature of the disease. Antigens that have been extensively tested in animal models are now available for testing in human subjects.
Article Reference Nasal vaccination with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective immunity against non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in the nasopharynx.
Nasal vaccination is an effective therapeutic regimen for preventing otitis media. Since cholera toxin (CT) is toxic, an alternative adjuvant is required for the development of a nasal vaccine. The efficacy of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as a mucosal adjuvant was examined.
Article Reference Bacterial otitis media: a vaccine preventable disease?
Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood illness for which medical advice is sought. Whilst the disease rarely results in death, there is a significant level of morbidity and economic burden on the community. Although the causes of OM are multifactoral, bacterial and viral infections are the single most important cause. Bacteria responsible for infections of the middle ear are predominantly, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Antibiotics have been widely used to treat children who present to a medical clinic with OM. However, given the high prevalence of this disease and the increasing incidence of microbial resistance to antibiotics, there is a need to develop alternative therapeutic strategies such as vaccination. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination has produced disappointing results for effectiveness in preventing OM and there is evidence of an increased incidence of disease due to non-vaccine serotypes. An efficacious vaccine for bacterial OM would require combining protective protein antigens from all three causative bacteria. A combined bacterial-viral vaccine formulation would produce the most profound and sustained impact on reducing the global incidence of OM.
Article Reference Community-wide vaccination with the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate significantly alters the microbiology of acute otitis media.
Community-wide use of conjugated heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in children <2 years of age could affect the microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in vaccinees, particularly for penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP).
Article Reference Intranasal immunization with a lipooligosaccharide-based conjugate vaccine from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae enhances bacterial clearance in mouse nasopharynx.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of otitis media in children. We investigated whether intranasal immunization with a detoxified lipooligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid (dLOS-TT) conjugate vaccine would generate protective immunity against NTHi in a mouse model of nasopharyngeal clearance. The results demonstrated that intranasal immunization with dLOS-TT plus adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) significantly induced LOS-specific IgA antibodies in mouse external secretions, especially in nasal wash (90-fold), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (25-fold), saliva (13-fold) and fecal extract (three-fold). LOS-specific IgA antibody-forming cells were also found in mucosal and lymphoid tissues with their highest numbers in the nasal passage (528 per 10(6) cells). In addition, the intranasal immunization elicited a significant rise in LOS-specific IgG (32-fold) and IgA (13-fold) in serum. For the immunized mice which had been challenged through the nose with 10(7) live NTHi strain 9274 cells, the vaccine group showed a significant reduction (74-77%) of NTHi, compared to that of control groups with CT alone or dLOS plus CT (P<0.05). Negative correlations were found between bacterial counts and the levels of nasal wash IgA or IgG, saliva IgA and serum IgG. The clearance of five heterologous strains was investigated and revealed a significant clearance of strains 3198, 5657 and 7502 but not of strains 1479 and 2019. These data suggest that intranasal immunization with dLOS-TT vaccine elicits both mucosal and systemic immunity against NTHi and enhances bacterial clearance from nasopharynx in mice. Such a vaccine and vaccination regime may be applicable to humans with an appropriate formulation.
Article Reference Bacterial otitis media: current vaccine development strategies.
Otitis media is the most common reason for children less than 5 years of age to visit a medical practitioner. Whilst the disease rarely results in death, there is significant associated morbidity. The most common complication is loss of hearing at a critical stage of the development of speech, language and cognitive abilities in children. The cause and pathogenesis of otitis media is multifactorial. Among the contributing factors, the single most important are viral and bacterial infections. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, para-influenza viruses, enteroviruses and adenovirus are most commonly associated with acute and chronic otitis media. Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most commonly isolated bacteria from the middle ears of children with otitis media. Treatment of otitis media has largely relied on the administration of antimicrobials and surgical intervention. However, attention has recently focused on the development of a vaccine. For a vaccine to be effective against bacterial otitis media, it must, at the very least, contain antigens that induce a protective immune response in the middle ear against the three most common infecting bacteria. Whilst over the past decade there has been significant progress in the development of vaccines against invasive S. pneumoniae disease, these vaccines are less efficacious for otitis media. The search for candidate vaccine antigens for non-typeable H. influenzae are well advanced whilst less progress has been made for M. catarrhalis. No human studies have been conducted for non-typeable H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis and the concept of a tribacterial vaccine remains to be tested in animal models. Only when vaccine antigens are determined and an understanding of the immune responses induced in the middle ear by infection and immunization is gained will the formulation of a tribacterial vaccine against otitis media be possible.
Article Reference Vaccine prevention of acute otitis media.
The incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in infants and young children has increased dramatically in recent years in the United States. AOM often follows upper respiratory tract infections due to pathogens such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, and parainfluenza virus (PIV). These viruses cause eustachian tube dysfunction that is critical to the pathogenesis of AOM. Vaccines against these viruses would likely reduce the incidence of AOM. In three previous studies, influenza virus vaccines reduced the incidence of AOM by 30% to 36%. Vaccines to prevent infections with RSV and PIV type 3 are undergoing clinical testing at this time. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis are the three most common AOM pathogens. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is effective in preventing invasive disease and AOM caused by serotypes contained in the vaccine. Vaccine candidates for NTHi and M. catarrhalis are under development.
Article Reference Progress in the prevention of otitis media through immunization.
To review the progress that has been made in developing effective vaccines against the major bacterial pathogens responsible for acute otitis media.