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Article Reference Application of capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography multiple-step tandem electrospray mass spectrometry to profile glycoform expression during Haemophilus influenzae pathogenesis in the chinchilla model of experimental otitis media.
Otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common and recurrent bacterial infection of childhood. The structural variability and diversity of H. influenzae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycoforms are known to play a significant role in the commensal and disease-causing behavior of this pathogen. In this study, we determined LPS glycoform populations from NTHi strain 1003 during the course of experimental otitis media in the chinchilla model of infection by mass spectrometric techniques. Building on an established structural model of the major LPS glycoforms expressed by this NTHi strain in vitro (M. Månsson, W. Hood, J. Li, J. C. Richards, E. R. Moxon, and E. K. Schweda, Eur. J. Biochem. 269:808-818, 2002), minor isomeric glycoform populations were determined by liquid chromatography multiple-step tandem electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(n)). Using capillary electrophoresis ESI-MS (CE-ESI-MS), we determined glycoform profiles for bacteria from direct middle ear fluid (MEF) samples. The LPS glycan profiles were essentially the same when the MEF samples of 7 of 10 animals were passaged on solid medium (chocolate agar). LC-ESI-MS(n) provided a sensitive method for determining the isomeric distribution of LPS glycoforms in MEF and passaged specimens. To investigate changes in LPS glycoform distribution during the course of infection, MEF samples were analyzed at 2, 5, and 9 days postinfection by CE-ESI-MS following minimal passage on chocolate agar. As previously observed, sialic acid-containing glycoforms were detected during the early stages of infection, but a trend toward more-truncated and less-complex LPS glycoforms that lacked sialic acid was found as disease progressed.
Article Reference Mouse models for the study of mucosal vaccination against otitis media.
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in humans. The pathogenesis of OM involves nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and retrograde ascension of the pathogen up the Eustachian tube into the middle ear (ME). Due to increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need for vaccines to prevent infections caused by the most common causes of bacterial OM, including nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Current vaccine strategies aim to diminish bacterial NP carriage, thereby reducing the likelihood of developing acute OM. To be effective, vaccination should induce local mucosal immunity both in the ME and in the NP. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that the intranasal route of vaccination is particularly effective at inducing immune responses in the nasal passage and ME for protection against OM. The mouse is increasingly used in these models, because of the availability of murine reagents and the existence of technology to manipulate murine models of disease immunologically and genetically. Previous studies confirmed the suitability of the mouse as a model for inflammatory processes in acute OM. Here, we discuss various murine models of OM and review the applicability of these models to assess the efficacy of mucosal vaccination and the mechanisms responsible for protection. In addition, we discuss various mucosal vaccine antigens, mucosal adjuvants and mucosal delivery systems.
Article Reference Haemophilus influenzae lysate induces aspects of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotype.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly colonizes the lower airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether it contributes to COPD progression is unknown. Here, we determined which aspects of the COPD phenotype can be induced by repetitive exposure to NTHi products. Mice were exposed weekly to an aerosolized NTHi lysate, and inflammation was evaluated by measurement of cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and immunohistochemical staining; structural changes were evaluated histochemically by periodic acid fluorescent Schiff's reagent, Masson's trichrome, and Picrosirius red staining; mucin gene expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR; and the role of TNF-alpha was examined by transgenic airway overexpression and use of an inhibitory antibody. NTHi lysate induced rapid activation of NF-kappaB in airway cells and increases of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils in BALF. Repetitive exposure induced infiltration of macrophages, CD8+ T cells, and B cells around airways and blood vessels, and collagen deposition in airway and alveolar walls, but airway mucin staining and gel-forming mucin transcripts were not increased. Transgenic overexpression of TNF-alpha caused BALF neutrophilia and inflammatory cell infiltration around airways, but not fibrosis, and TNF-alpha neutralization did not reduce BALF neutrophilia in response to NTHi lysate. In conclusion, NTHi products elicit airway inflammation in mice with a cellular and cytokine profile similar to that in COPD, and cause airway wall fibrosis but not mucous metaplasia. TNF-alpha is neither required for inflammatory cell recruitment nor sufficient for airway fibrosis. Colonization by NTHi may contribute to the pathogenesis of small airways disease in patients with COPD.
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae bind respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with secondary bacterial infections caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The pathogenesis of these complications is not completely understood; however, viral infection of respiratory epithelial cells promotes colonization by these bacteria. In the present study, RSV virions associated with NTHi and pneumococci in an inoculum-dependent manner in a fluid-phase binding assay. Adherence of NTHi and S. pneumoniae to epithelial cells transiently expressing RSV G glycoprotein was 2- and 2.2-fold higher, respectively, than adhesion to cells transfected with the vector alone (P <0.01). Furthermore, 4.6- and 6.2-fold larger numbers of NTHi and pneumococci bound to cells expressing a membrane-bound full-length RSV G protein than to cells expressing a truncated non-membrane-bound protein (P <or=0.005). Pre-incubating cells expressing membrane-bound G protein with blocking anti-RSV G antibodies reduced bacterial adherence by 78-84 % (P <or=0.005). These studies demonstrate that RSV G protein is a receptor for both NTHi and S. pneumoniae. Strategies to prevent this interaction may reduce the incidence of secondary bacterial complications of RSV infection.
Article Reference The PilA protein of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae plays a role in biofilm formation, adherence to epithelial cells and colonization of the mammalian upper respiratory tract.
We recently described the expression of type IV pili (Tfp) by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), a common respiratory tract pathogen. Prior to that report, Tfp were not thought to be produced by NTHI as they are not observed on NTHI when grown on chocolate agar or other commonly used growth media. To further characterize growth conditions permissive for the expression of NTHI Tfp, as well as determine their role in colonization and virulence, we transformed an NTHI otitis media isolate with a reporter plasmid containing the lux gene cluster driven by the pilA promoter. Transcription from the pilA promoter was demonstrated under a variety of in vitro growth conditions and, importantly, by ex vivo imaging of luciferase-producing NTHI in infected chinchillas. Luciferase-producing NTHI were also identified within a biofilm formed by NTHI in vivo. We further demonstrated a role for NTHI PilA in adherence to human respiratory epithelial cells, in colonization of the chinchilla respiratory tract as well as a requirement for PilA in biofilm development, both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NTHI express PilA in vivo, and that PilA plays an important role in the pathogenesis of an upper respiratory tract infection induced by NTHI.
Article Reference Identification of a bifunctional lipopolysaccharide sialyltransferase in Haemophilus influenzae: incorporation of disialic acid.
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) can be substituted at various positions by N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). LPS sialylation plays an important role in pathogenesis. The only LPS sialyltransferase characterized biochemically to date in H. influenzae is Lic3A, an alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase responsible for the addition of Neu5Ac to a lactose acceptor (Hood, D. W., Cox, A. D., Gilbert, M., Makepeace, K., Walsh, S., Deadman, M. E., Cody, A., Martin, A., Månsson, M., Schweda, E. K., Brisson, J. R., Richards, J. C., Moxon, E. R., and Wakarchuk, W. W. (2001) Mol. Microbiol. 39, 341-350). Here we describe a second sialyltransferase, Lic3B, that is a close homologue of Lic3A and present in 60% of NTHi isolates tested. A recombinant form of Lic3B was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. We used synthetic fluorescent acceptors with a terminal lactose or sialyllactose to show that Lic3B has both alpha-2,3- and alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase activities. Structural analysis of LPS from lic3B mutant strains of NTHi confirmed that only monosialylated species were detectable, whereas disialylated species were detected upon inactivation of lic3A. Furthermore, introduction of lic3B into a lic3B-deficient strain background resulted in a significant increase in sialylation in the recipient strain. Mass spectrometric analysis of LPS indicated that glycoforms containing two Neu5Ac residues were evident that were not present in the LPS of the parent strain. These findings characterize the activity of a second sialyltransferase in H. influenzae, responsible for the addition of di-sialic acid to the LPS. Modification of the LPS by di-sialylation conferred increased resistance of the organism to the killing effects of normal human serum, as compared with mono-sialylated or non-sialylated species, indicating that this modification has biological significance.
Article Reference The non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Sap transporter provides a mechanism of antimicrobial peptide resistance and SapD-dependent potassium acquisition.
We have shown that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) resists killing by antimicrobial peptides (APs). A mutant defective in expression of the sap (sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides) gene cluster product SapA is sensitive to killing by APs and is significantly attenuated in its ability to survive in a chinchilla model of otitis media compared with the parent strain. In NTHI, SapA is believed to function as the periplasmic solute binding protein of an ABC transporter. Here, we demonstrated that recombinant chinchilla beta defensin-1 specifically interacted with recombinant SapA and that AP exposure increased expression of the sap operon. We further demonstrated that the putative Sap transporter ATPase protein, SapD, was required for AP resistance as well as potassium uptake in NTHI strain 86-028NP. Loss of SapD additionally abrogated NTHI survival in vivo. Complementation of the sapD mutation restored the ability to grow in potassium-limited medium, resistance to AP-mediated killing and survival in vivo. Collectively, these data support a mechanism of Sap system-mediated resistance to APs that depends on Sap-dependent transport of APs and a Sap-dependent restoration of potassium homeostasis. Thus, NTHI required a functional Sap system to mediate bacterial survival and pathogenesis in vivo.
Article Reference Haemophilus influenzae forms biofilms on airway epithelia: implications in cystic fibrosis.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly infects patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), especially early in childhood. Bacteria biofilms are increasingly recognized as contributing to bacterial persistence and disease pathogenesis in CF.
Article Reference Impaired alveolar macrophage response to Haemophilus antigens in chronic obstructive lung disease.
Interactions of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) with macrophages are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the immunologic mechanisms that mediate NTHI-macrophage inflammation are poorly understood. Outer membrane protein (OMP) P6 and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of NTHI are potent immunomodulators. We theorized that alveolar macrophages in COPD possess fundamental immune defects that permit NTHI to evade host responses.
Article Reference Role of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in exacerbations and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with airway infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both in stable disease and during exacerbations. Past attempts to elucidate its role as a pathogen in this disease yielded confusing and contradictory results, leading to its designation as an 'innocent bystander' with little if any pathogenic role in exacerbations and stable disease. Application of modern understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and of innovative research methodologies, however, has considerably clarified its role.
Article Reference Conservation and diversity of HMW1 and HMW2 adhesin binding domains among invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates.
The pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) begins with adhesion to the rhinopharyngeal mucosa. In almost 80% of NTHi clinical isolates, the HMW proteins are the major adhesins. The prototype HMW1 and HMW2 proteins, identified in NTHi strain 12, exhibit different binding specificities. The two binding domains have been localized in regions of maximal sequence dissimilarity (40% identity, 58% similarity). Two areas within these binding domains have been found essential for full level adhesive activity (designated the core-binding domains). To investigate the conservation and diversity of the HMW1 and HMW2 core-binding domains among isolates, PCR and DNA sequencing were used. First, we separately amplified the hmw1A-like and hmw2A-like structural genes in nine invasive NTHi isolates, discovering two new hmwA alleles, whose sequences are herein reported. Then, the hmw1A-like and hmw2A-like PCR products were used as the template in nested PCR to produce amplicons encompassing the encoding sequences of the two core-binding domains. In-depth sequence analysis was then performed among sequences of each group, with the support of specific computer programs. Overall, extensive sequence diversity among isolates was highlighted. However, similarity plots showed patterns consisting of peaks of relatively high similarity alternating with strongly divergent regions. The phylogenetic tree clearly indicated the HMW1-like and HMW2-like core-binding domain sequences as two clusters. Distinct sets of conserved amino acid motifs were identified within each group of sequences using the MEME/MOTIFSEARCH tool. Since HMW adhesins could represent candidates for future vaccines, identification of specific patterns of conserved motifs in otherwise highly variable regions is of great interest.
Article Reference Eustachian tube possesses immunological characteristics as a mucosal effector site and responds to P6 outer membrane protein of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
The eustachian tube (ET) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM). To better understand its biology and to develop a nasal vaccine for preventing OM, mucosal lymphocytes in the ET were analyzed, and the ET's immunological function was investigated. Mononuclear cells were isolated from murine ET, and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Antibody-producing cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The expression of cytokine mRNA in ET CD4(+) T cells was determined by RT-PCR. Results in naive mice showed that the ET contained many immunocompetent cells, including a relative large number of IgA-producing cells and Th2 cytokine-expressing T cells. Next, we investigated antigen-specific immune responses in the ET. Mice were immunized intranasally with the P6 outer membrane of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and cholera toxin (CT), and P6-specific immune responses in the ET were examined. P6-specific IgA producing cells markedly increased in the ET. Moreover, in vitro stimulation with P6 of purified CD4(+) T cells from immunized mice resulted in the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells that expressed Th2 cytokine mRNA. These results indicate that the ET might be characterized as a mucosal effector site and that antigen-specific IgA and Th2 immune responses could be induced in the ET by intranasal immunization. These findings suggest that the ET might be a key immunological organ in the pathogenesis of OM, and in the development of a nasal vaccine.
Article Reference Calcium deposition and expression of bone modelling markers in the tympanic membrane following acute otitis media.
In accordance with clinical findings, myringosclerosis develops after otitis media (OM) and paracentesis in an experimental setting. The pathogenesis of this phenomenon of calcification is poorly understood. As the calcification process and the sclerotic plaques of the drum mimics features of bone tissue, this study explores tympanic membrane calcium deposition in association with the expression of three bone modelling markers: osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteonectin (ON). OPN is secreted by osteoblasts and is found at calcification sites, e.g. during pathological calcification in chronic OM. The cytokine OPG is an inhibitor of bone resorption and consequently bone remodelling. ON is a calcium binding glycoprotein necessary for the maintenance of bone mass and remodelling. It is found in bone matrix and synthesized by osteoblasts.
Article Reference Haemophilus influenzae luxS mutants form a biofilm and have increased virulence.
To gain insight into the role of luxSHi in disease pathogenesis, we inactivated that gene in several non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates with an antibiotic resistance cassette. Gene inactivation was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot analysis in each strain. Culture filtrates from luxSHi mutants contained a decreased amount of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity in comparison to the wild-type isolates using the Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay. Culture filtrates from Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha expressing a cloned luxSHi contained 350-fold more AI-2 activity per cell than E. coli DH5alpha containing the vector alone. The growth rate in several liquid media, and the cell density after overnight growth were not significantly different between the parents and the luxSHi mutants. Two clinical H. influenzae and their luxSHi mutants produced an identical biofilm in a flow system. Invasion of human cells by the luxSHi mutants, in comparison to the wild-type parents was strain-dependent, and cell type-dependent, but the luxSHi mutants tended to be more invasive. The luxSHi mutant of an otitis media isolate, strain R3157 appeared more virulent in the chinchilla model of otitis media: there were more bacteria in the middle ear, a greater inflammatory response and more goblet cell hyperplasia 10 days after the inoculation. We conclude that the H. influenzae homologue of luxS modulates certain virulence traits.
Article Reference Role of sialic acid and complex carbohydrate biosynthesis in biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in the chinchilla middle ear.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an important pathogen in respiratory tract infections, including otitis media (OM). NTHI forms biofilms in vitro as well as in the chinchilla middle ear, suggesting that biofilm formation in vivo might play an important role in the pathogenesis and chronicity of OM. We've previously shown that SiaA, SiaB, and WecA are involved in biofilm production by NTHI in vitro. To investigate whether these gene products were also involved in biofilm production in vivo, NTHI strain 2019 and five isogenic mutants with deletions in genes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis were inoculated into the middle ears of chinchillas. The wild-type strain formed a large, well-organized, and viable biofilm; however, the wecA, lsgB, siaA, pgm, and siaB mutants were either unable to form biofilms or formed biofilms of markedly reduced mass, organization, and viability. Despite their compromised ability to form a biofilm in vivo, wecA, lsgB, and siaA mutants survived in the chinchilla, inducing culture-positive middle ear effusions, whereas pgm and siaB mutants were extremely sensitive to the bactericidal activity of chinchilla serum and thus did not survive. Lectin analysis indicated that sialic acid was an important component of the NTHI 2019 biofilm produced in vivo. Our data suggested that genes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and assembly play an important role in the ability of NTHI to form a biofilm in vivo. Collectively, we found that when modeled in a mammalian host, whereas biofilm formation was not essential for survivability of NTHI in vivo, lipooligosaccharide sialylation was indispensable.
Article Reference Outer membrane protein P6 of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a potent and selective inducer of human macrophage proinflammatory cytokines.
Interactions of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) with human macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of NTHI-induced infection in humans. However, the immunologic mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate NTHI-mediated macrophage responses have not been well explored. Outer membrane protein (OMP) P6 is a conserved lipoprotein expressed by NTHI in vivo that possesses a Pam(3)Cys terminal motif, characteristic of immunoactive bacterial lipoproteins associated with Toll-like receptor signaling. We theorized that OMP P6 is a potent immunomodulator of human macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we purified OMP P6 as well as OMP P2, the predominant NTHI outer membrane protein, and lipooligosaccharide (LOS), the specific endotoxin of NTHI, from NTHI strain 1479. Human blood monocyte-derived macrophages, purified from healthy donors, were incubated with each outer membrane constituent, and cytokine production of macrophage supernatants interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-10, IL-12, and IL-8 was measured. OMP P6 selectively upregulated IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IL-8. While OMP P6 (0.1 mug/ml for 8 h) elicited slightly greater concentrations of IL-10, it resulted in over ninefold greater concentrations of TNF-alpha and over fourfold greater concentrations of IL-8 than did OMP P2. OMP P6 at doses as low as 10 pg/ml was still effective at induction of macrophage IL-8, while OMP P2 and LOS were not. OMP P6 of NTHI is a specific trigger of bacteria-induced human macrophage inflammatory events, with IL-8 and TNF-alpha as key effectors of P6-induced macrophage responses.
Article Reference Cytokine expression in experimental chronic otitis media with effusion in mice.
Although otitis media with effusion (OME) is still a common disease in children and adults, the pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. We studied the effects of intratympanic injection with endotoxin purified from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae on the characteristics of middle ear effusion (MEE).
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae lipoprotein P6 induces MUC5AC mucin transcription via TLR2-TAK1-dependent p38 MAPK-AP1 and IKKbeta-IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB signaling pathways.
Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections. The molecular mechanisms underlying up-regulation of mucin in NTHi infections especially during the initial phase remain unknown. Here we show that P6, a 16-kDa outer membrane lipoprotein well conserved in NTHi, up-regulates MUC5AC mucin gene transcription in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, P6 induces MUC5AC transcription via TLR2-MyD88-IRAK1-TRAF6-TAK1-dependent p38 MAPK-AP1 and IKKbeta-IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB signaling pathways. This study may bring new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of NTHi-induced infections and lead to novel therapeutic intervention for inhibiting mucin overproduction in patients with NTHi infections.
Article Reference Prevalence of the hifBC, hmw1A, hmw2A, hmwC, and hia Genes in Haemophilus influenzae Isolates.
Adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to respiratory epithelial cells is the first step in the pathogenesis of H. influenzae infection and is facilitated by the action of several adhesins located on the surface of the bacteria. In this study, prevalences of hifBC, which represent the pilus gene cluster; hmw1A, hmw2A, and hmwC, which represent high-molecular-weight (HMW) adhesin genes; and hia, which represents H. influenzae adhesin (Hia) genes were determined among clinical isolates of encapsulated type b (Hib) and nonencapsulated (NTHi) H. influenzae. hifBC genes were detected in 109 of 170 (64%) Hib strains and in 46 of 162 (28%) NTHi isolates (P = 0.0001) and were more prevalent among the invasive type b strains than invasive NTHi strains (P = 0.00003). Furthermore, hifBC genes were significantly more prevalent (P = 0.0398) among NTHi throat isolates than NTHi middle ear isolates. hmw1A, hmw2A, hmwC, and hia genes were not detected in Hib strains. Among NTHi isolates, the prevalence of hmw1A was 51%, the prevalence of hmw2A was 23%, the prevalence of hmwC was 48%, and the prevalence of hia was 33%. The hmw genes were significantly more prevalent among middle ear than throat isolates, while hia did not segregate with a respiratory tract site. These results show the variability of the presence of adhesin genes among clinical H. influenzae isolates and suggest that hemagglutinating pili may play a larger role in H. influenzae nasopharyngeal colonization than in acute otitis media whereas the HMW adhesins may be virulence factors for acute otitis media.
Article Reference Reduced severity of middle ear infection caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae lacking the hemoglobin/hemoglobin-haptoglobin binding proteins (Hgp) in a chinchilla model of otitis media.
Since Haemophilus influenzae lacks enzymes necessary for synthesis of the porphyrin ring, it has an absolute growth requirement for a porphyrin source. This requirement can be satisfied in vitro by hemoglobin and hemoglobin complexed to haptoglobin. The products of the hgp genes mediate the utilization of heme from hemoglobin-haptoglobin. These genes are also involved in the use of heme from hemoglobin, although additional gene products independently mediate the acquisition of heme from this substrate. Different strains of H. influenzae possess one to four hgp genes. A nontypeable H. influenzae mutant lacking all the hgp genes was constructed and compared to the wild-type strain in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) model of otitis media. Compared to the wild-type strain, the hgp-deficient mutant exhibited a significantly delayed onset of detectable middle ear infection and significantly reduced duration of infection as assessed by both video otoscopy and tympanometry and as evidenced by viable bacterial counts in middle ear effusions. In addition, the maximum bacterial load in the middle ears of chinchillas infected with the mutant strain was significantly reduced when compared to the parent. These data indicate that the hemoglobin/hemoglobin-haptoglobin binding proteins are required for bacterial proliferation during H. influenzae-induced otitis media in chinchillas.