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Article Reference Haemophilus influenzae and smoking-related obstructive airways disease.
Intralumenal bacteria play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute infective episodes and airway inflammation. Antigens from colonizing bacteria such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) may contribute to chronic lung disease through an immediate hypersensitivity response. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of specific NTHi-IgE antibodies in subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and COPD who had smoked.
Article Reference ArcA-regulated glycosyltransferase lic2B promotes complement evasion and pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Signaling mechanisms used by Haemophilus influenzae to adapt to conditions it encounters during stages of infection and pathogenesis are not well understood. The ArcAB two-component signal transduction system controls gene expression in response to respiratory conditions of growth and contributes to resistance to bactericidal effects of serum and to bloodstream infection by H. influenzae. We show that ArcA of nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI) activates expression of a glycosyltransferase gene, lic2B. Structural comparison of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of a lic2B mutant to that of the wild-type strain NT127 revealed that lic2B is required for addition of a galactose residue to the LOS outer core. The lic2B gene was crucial for optimal survival of NTHI in a mouse model of bacteremia and for evasion of serum complement. The results demonstrate that ArcA, which controls cellular metabolism in response to environmental reduction and oxidation (redox) conditions, also coordinately controls genes that are critical for immune evasion, providing evidence that NTHI integrates redox signals to regulate specific countermeasures against host defense.
Article Reference Up-regulation of MUC18 in airway epithelial cells by IL-13: implications in bacterial adherence.
Airway bacterial infections are a major problem in lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. Increased Th2 cytokines, such as IL-13, are observed in lung diseases and may contribute to bacterial infections. How Th2 cytokines affect bacterial infection remains unknown. MUC18, an adhesion molecule shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma, has been recently identified in airway epithelial cells of patients with COPD. We investigated MUC18 regulation by IL-13 and the role of MUC18 in bacterial adherence to epithelial cells. Human airway tissues, brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and subjects with asthma, and epithelial cell lines (e.g., HEK293 cells) were used to study the regulation of MUC18 by IL-13 and the involvement of MUC18 in bacterial (e.g., Mycoplasma pneumoniae [Mp] and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [NTHi]) adherence to epithelial cells. Asthmatic bronchial epithelium expressed higher levels of MUC18 than normal bronchial epithelium. IL-13 increased MUC18 in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and particularly from subjects with asthma. IL-13-induced MUC18 expression may be modulated in part through transcription factor specificity protein 1. Overexpression of human MUC18 in HEK293 cells increased cell-associated Mp and NTHi levels. Moreover, MUC18 was shown to directly interact with Mp and NTHi. These results for the first time show that an allergic airway milieu (e.g., IL-13) increases MUC18 expression, which may contribute to increased bacterial infection/colonization in asthma and other lung diseases.
Article Reference The role of DNA sensing and innate immune receptor TLR9 in otitis media.
Otitis media (OM), a common infectious disease in children, is associated with bacterial middle ear (ME) infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of innate immune responses, and TLR9 specifically recognizes the unmethylated cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) motifs in bacterial DNA. Additional sensors of foreign DNA have recently been identified. The role of DNA sensing and TLR9 was investigated in a murine model of OM induced by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Expression of genes related to DNA-sensing pathways involved in innate immunity was assessed via DNA microarray, qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Middle ear responses to NTHi were examined in wild-type and TLR9(-/-) mice by histopathology and bacterial culture. Expression of TLR9 signaling genes was modestly up-regulated during OM, as was TLR9 protein in both ME mucosal cells and infiltrating leukocytes. However, genes known to be regulated by CpG DNA were dramatically up-regulated, as were genes involved in DNA sensing by DIA, Pol-III and AIM2. Toll-like receptor 9 deletion significantly prolonged the inflammatory response induced by NTHi in the ME and delayed bacterial clearance. The results suggest that DNA sensing via TLR9 plays a role in OM pathogenesis and recovery. Alternative forms of DNA sensing may also contribute to OM.
Article Reference The role of TLR2 and bacterial lipoprotein in enhancing airway inflammation and immunity.
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) colonizes the lower respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and also causes exacerbations of the disease. The 16-kDa lipoprotein P6 has been widely studied as a potential vaccine antigen due to its highly conserved expression amongst NTHI strains. Although P6 is known to induce potent inflammatory responses, its role in the pathogenesis of NTHI infection in vivo has not been examined. Additionally, the presence of an amino-terminal lipid motif on P6 serves to activate host Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling. The role of host TLR2 and NTHI expression of the lipoprotein P6 on the induction of airway inflammation and generation of adaptive immune responses following chronic NTHI stimulation was evaluated with TLR2-deficient mice and a P6-deficient NTHI strain. Absence of either host TLR2 or bacterial P6 resulted in diminished levels of immune cell infiltration within lungs of mice exposed to NTHI. Pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was also reduced in lungs that did not express TLR2 or were exposed to NTHI devoid of P6. Induction of specific antibodies to P6 was severely limited in TLR2-deficient mice. Although mice exposed to the P6-deficient NTHI strain were capable of generating antibodies to other surface antigens of NTHI, these levels were lower compared to those observed in mice exposed to P6-expressing NTHI. Therefore, cognate interaction between host TLR2 and bacterial P6 serves to enhance lung inflammation and elicit robust adaptive immune responses during NTHI exposure. Strategies to limit NTHI inflammation while simultaneously promoting robust immune responses may benefit from targeting the TLR2:P6 signaling axis.
Article Reference The TGF-beta-pseudoreceptor BAMBI is strongly expressed in COPD lungs and regulated by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) may play a role as an infectious trigger in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Few data are available regarding the influence of acute and persistent infection on tissue remodelling and repair factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta.
Article Reference [Progress toward molecular determinants of the pathogenesis of disease due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae].
Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is a pathogen exclusively found in humans. It causes a wide range of infections from the upper respiratory tract to serious invasive diseases. Such as pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis. Strains of Hi are usually classified into six serotypes a to f and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI) according to the antigenicities and compositions of their polysaccharide capsules. Hib was a common cause of serious infections in younger children. The polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines against Hib had almost eliminated H. influenzae as a cause of pediatric meningitis. However, NTHI remains an important pathogen, particularly in children and the elderly. Efforts to understand and control NTHI disease have been hampered by the diversity of these bacteria. This review introduced the study progress about pathogenic mechanism of NTHI. In order to provide the help for development of vaccine, clinic treatment and prevent the occurrence of diseases causing by NTHI.
Article Reference Recent advances in otitis media.
Otitis media (OM) is a pervasive illness in infants and children, and many children suffer multiple episodes during the first years of life. High rates of acute otitis media (AOM) are reported in developed and emerging countries. Early onset is common in both settings. Recurrent OM is associated with several factors, including early onset of disease, having a sibling with a history of AOM and absence of breast-feeding. Early onset disease has been hypothesized to result from Eustachian tube dysfunction, immunologic naivete and immaturity, and viral upper respiratory tract infection. Nasopharyngeal colonization with bacterial otopathogens increases the likelihood of AOM and the disease is most frequent in children with viral respiratory tract infection colonized with multiple otopathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [NTHi], Moraxella catarrhalis), potentially as a result of inflammation resulting from competition among the bacterial species within the nasopharynx. Epidemiologic observations and studies of pathogenesis suggest that successful strategies for reducing the burden of disease will be best accomplished by targeting multiple viral and/or bacterial pathogens and preventing early onset disease. Guidelines (2004) for the treatment of AOM in children establish a clear hierarchy among the various antibacterials for the treatment of this disease. Failure to achieve early bacterial eradication during antibiotic therapy for AOM increases the clinical failure rates in AOM in young children. Most recurrent AOM episodes occurring within 1 month after successful completion of antibiotic therapy are due to new otopathogens. Failure to eradicate middle ear and/or nasopharyngeal pathogens is associated with higher rates of clinical recurrent AOM, even when the patients show clinical improvement or cure at the end of therapy for the initial episode. Optimal strategy for the prevention of AOM recurrences requires sterilization of the middle ear and eradication of nasopharyngeal carriage of otopathogens during antimicrobial therapy.
Article Reference The toll-Like receptor adaptor TRIF contributes to otitis media pathogenesis and recovery.
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling is crucial for innate immune responses to infection. The involvement of TLRs in otitis media (OM), the most prevalent childhood disease in developed countries, has been implicated by studies in middle ear cell lines, by association studies of TLR-related gene polymorphisms, and by altered OM in mice bearing mutations in TLR genes. Activated TLRs signal via two alternative intracellular signaling molecules with differing effects; MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) inducing primarily interleukin expression and TRIF (Tir-domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon beta) mediating type I interferon (IFN) expression. We tested the hypothesis that TRIF and type I IFN signaling play a role in OM, using a murine model of OM induced by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The ME inflammatory response to NTHi was examined in wild-type (WT) and TRIF-/- mice by qPCR, gene microarray, histopathology and bacterial culture.
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein E binds vitronectin and is important for serum resistance.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly causes local disease in the upper and lower respiratory tract and has recently been shown to interfere with both the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. The terminal pathway of the complement system is regulated by vitronectin that is a component of both plasma and the extracellular matrix. In this study, we identify protein E (PE; 16 kDa), which is a recently characterized ubiquitous outer membrane protein, as a vitronectin-binding protein of NTHi. A PE-deficient NTHi mutant had a markedly reduced survival in serum compared with the PE-expressing isogenic NTHi wild type. Moreover, the PE-deficient mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to both soluble and immobilized vitronectin. In parallel, PE-expressing Escherichia coli bound soluble vitronectin and adhered to immobilized vitronectin compared with controls. Surface plasmon resonance technology revealed a K(D) of 0.4 microM for the interaction between recombinant PE and immobilized vitronectin. Moreover, the PE-dependent vitronectin-binding site was located at the heparin-binding domains of vitronectin and the major vitronectin-binding domain was found in the central core of PE (aa 84-108). Importantly, vitronectin bound to the surface of NTHi 3655 reduced membrane attack complex-induced hemolysis. In contrast to incubation with normal human serum, NTHi 3655 showed a reduced survival in vitronectin-depleted human serum, thus demonstrating that vitronectin mediates a protective role at the bacterial surface. Our findings show that PE, by binding vitronectin, may play an important role in NTHi pathogenesis.
Article Reference TLR4-mediated induction of TLR2 signaling is critical in the pathogenesis and resolution of otitis media.
Otitis media is the most prevalent childhood disease in developed countries. The involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in otitis media pathophysiology has been implicated by studies in cell lines and association studies of TLR gene polymorphisms. However, precise functions of TLRs in the etiology of otitis media in vivo have not been examined. We investigated the inflammatory response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae using a model of otitis media in wild-type, TLR2(- /-) and TLR4(-/ -) mice by gene microarray, qPCR, immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis and histopathology. Toll-like receptor-2(- /-) and TLR4(- /-) mice exhibited a more profound, persistent inflammation with impaired bacterial clearance compared to controls. While wild-type mice induced tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF) after non-typeable H. influenzae challenge, TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice lack TNF induction in the early phase of otitis media. Moreover, lack of TLR2 resulted in a late increase in IL-10 expression and prolonged failure to clear bacteria. Toll-like receptor-4(-/- ) mice showed impaired early bacterial clearance and loss of TLR2 induction in early otitis media. Our results demonstrate that both TLR2 and TLR4 signalling are critical to the regulation of infection in non-typeable H. influenzae-induced otitis media. Toll-like receptor-4 signalling appears to induce TLR2 expression, and TLR2 activation is critical for bacterial clearance and timely resolution of otitis media.
Article Reference Intercellular adhesion and biocide resistance in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms.
Respiratory infections caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are a major medical problem. Evidence suggests that the ability to form biofilms on mucosal surfaces may play a role in NTHi pathogenesis. However, the factors that contribute to NTHi biofilm cohesion remain largely unknown. In this study we investigated the biofilm growth and detachment phenotypes of eight NTHi clinical strains in vitro. We found that the majority of strains produced biofilms within 6h when cultured statically in tubes. Biofilm formation was inhibited when culture medium was supplemented with proteinase K or DNase I. Both enzymes also caused significant detachment of pre-formed NTHi biofilms. These findings indicate that both proteinaceous adhesins and extracellular DNA contribute to NTHi biofilm cohesion. Treatment of NTHi biofilms cultured in centrifugal filter devices with DNase I, but not with proteinase K, caused a significant decrease in fluid convection through the biofilms. These results suggest that extracellular DNA is the major volumetric component of the NTHi biofilm matrix. Mechanical or enzymatic disruption of NTHi biofilms cultured in microtiter plates significantly increased their sensitivity to killing by SDS, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate, povidone iodine and sodium hypochlorite. These findings indicate that biocide resistance in NTHi biofilms is mediated to a large part by the cohesive and protective properties of the biofilm matrix. Understanding the mechanisms of biofilm cohesion and biocide resistance in NTHi biofilms may lead to new methods for treating NTHi-associated infections.
Article Reference In vivo efficacy of sitafloxacin in a new murine model of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia by sterile intratracheal tube.
A novel murine model of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) pneumonia was established. A plastic tube was inserted into the trachea 7 days before bacterial inoculation. Numbers of NTHi recovered from the lungs and trachea were determined for 7 days. Histologically, bronchioles and adjacent alveoli in the intubation group were filled with numerous inflammatory cells. The efficacy of sitafloxacin was compared with ciprofloxacin using the new murine pneumonia model. The data suggest that sitafloxacin displays equivalent efficacy to ciprofloxacin against H. influenzae pneumonia. This new murine NTHi pneumonia model appears useful not only for in vivo evaluation of antibiotics but also for analysis of the pathogenesis of H. influenzae pneumonia.
Article Reference Bacteria challenge in smoke-exposed mice exacerbates inflammation and skews the inflammatory profile.
The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with acute episodes of bacterial exacerbations. The most commonly isolated bacteria during episodes of exacerbation is nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI).
Article Reference Gene expression differences in infected and noninfected middle ear complementary DNA libraries.
To investigate genetic differences in middle ear mucosa (MEM) with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infection. Genetic upregulation and downregulation occurs in MEM during otitis media (OM) pathogenesis. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA (cDNA) library creation has not been performed.
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae adhesin protein E: characterization and biological activity.
The adhesin protein E (PE) of the human respiratory pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exists in all clinical isolates. In the present study, NTHi adherence to epithelial cells of various origins was further analyzed. The number of intraepithelial PE-deficient NTHi was decreased compared with PE-expressing NTHi. Interestingly, PE-expressing NTHi or Escherichia coli transformants, in addition to soluble recombinant PE22-160 without a lipid moiety, induced a proinflammatory cell response. The adhesive PE domain was defined within PE84-108, and preincubation of epithelial cells with this peptide blocked adhesion of several clinical NTHi isolates. Mice immunized with PE84-108 cleared NTHi up to 8-fold more efficiently on pulmonary challenge than did mice immunized with a control peptide. Finally, anti-PE mouse antibodies from vaccinated mice prevented NTHi adhesion. Our data suggest that the ubiquitous adhesin PE plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NTHi infection.
Article Reference Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae as a pathogen in children.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a significant pathogen in children, causing otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and occasionally invasive infections. H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines have no effect on infections caused by nontypeable strains because nontypeable strains are nonencapsulated. Approximately, one-third of episodes of otitis media are caused by nontypeable H. influenzae and the bacterium is the most common cause of recurrent otitis media. Recent progress in elucidating molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, understanding the role of biofilms in otitis media and an increasing understanding of immune responses have potential for development of novel strategies to improve prevention and treatment of otitis media caused by nontypeable H. influenzae. Feasibility of vaccination for prevention of otitis media due to nontypeable H. influenzae was recently demonstrated in a clinical trial with a vaccine that included the surface virulence factor, protein D.
Article Reference Prognostic impact of phosphorylcholine expression in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in otitis media with effusion.
The expression of phosphorylcholine (ChoP) in the surface of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of persistent otitis media with effusion (OME) in humans.
Article Reference Profiling structural elements of short-chain lipopolysaccharide of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major virulence determinant of the human bacterial pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. A characteristic feature of H. influenzae LPS is the extensive intra- and inter-strain heterogeneity of glycoform structure which is key to the role of the molecule in both commensal and disease-causing behaviour of the bacterium. The chemical composition of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) LPS is highly diverse. It contains a number of different monosaccharides (Neu5Ac, L-glycero-D-manno heptose, D-glycero-D-manno heptose, Kdo, D-Glc, D-Gal, D-GlcNAc, D-GalNAc) and non-carbohydrate substituents. Prominent non-carbohydrate components are O-acetyl groups, glycine and phosphates. We now know that sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid or Neu5Ac) and certain oligosaccharide extensions are important in the pathogenesis of NTHi; however, the biological implications for many of the various features are still unknown. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in combination with separation techniques like CE and HPLC is an indispensable tool in profiling glycoform populations in heterogeneous LPS samples. Mass spectrometry is characterized by its extreme sensitivity. Trace amounts of glycoforms expressing important virulence determinants can be detected and characterized on minute amounts of material. The present review focuses on LPS structures and mass spectrometric methods which enable us to profile these in complex mixtures.
Article Reference Differential expression of cytokine genes and iNOS induced by nonviable nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae or its LOS mutants during acute otitis media in the rat.
We have previously demonstrated that the disruptions of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) lipooligosaccharide (LOS) htrB and rfaD genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM). The purpose of this study was to determine whether NTHi LOS gene disruptions influence the induction of gene expression for proinflammatory mediators in vivo using the rat model of acute OM.