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Otitis Media

Article Reference A prospective, observational, epidemiological evaluation of the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of acute otitis media in Saudi children younger than 5years of age.
Information regarding acute otitis media (AOM) aetiology is important for developing effective vaccines. Here, bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM were determined in young Saudi children.
Article Reference Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae is not altered when ascending from the nasopharynx to the middle ears in children with otitis media.
We have previously found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) collected from the middle ear of children with otitis media (OM) exhibit increased levels of complement resistance compared to NTHi collected from the nasopharynx. However, it is unknown whether bacteria develop complement resistance in the middle ear, or whether resistance is present when residing in the nasopharynx. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the levels of complement resistance of isolates collected from the middle ear were similar to those of isolates from the nasopharynx with an identical MLST type. We included 62 children with recurrent acute OM, chronic OM with effusion or acute tympanostomy tube otorrhea. NTHi was simultaneously isolated from the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid. MLST, resistance to complement-mediated killing, IgG binding, IgM binding and phosphorylcholine expression was determined. In 41 children, NTHi isolated from the middle ear and nasopharynx showed to have an identical MLST type. Isolates collected from the middle ear showed a highly similar level of complement resistance and IgM binding with isolates collected from the nasopharynx, whereas this was not the case for IgG binding and phosphorylcholine incorporation into lipooligosaccharide. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding of NTHi isolates with an identical MLST type collected from the middle ear and nasopharynx of children with OM was highly similar.
Article Reference Non typable-Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation and acute otitis media.
Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NT-Hi) infection is frequently associated with acute otitis media (AOM) treatment failure, recurrence or chronic otitis media. Persistence of otopathogens in a biofilm-structured community was implicated in these situations. Here, we compared biofilm production by H. influenzae strains obtained by culture of middle ear fluid (MEF) from children with AOM treatment failure and by strains isolated from nasopharyngeal (NP) samples from healthy children or those with AOM (first episode or recurrence). We aimed to evaluate an association of clinical signs and in vitro biofilm formation and establish risk factors of carrying a biofilm-producing strain.
Article Reference Acute otitis media otopathogens during 2008 to 2010 in Rochester, New York.
The otopathogen distribution colonizing the nasopharynx (NP) and causing acute otitis media (AOM) is in flux following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) and will continue to change.
Article Reference Mixed pneumococcal-nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae otitis media is a distinct clinical entity with unique epidemiologic characteristics and pneumococcal serotype distribution.
Complex (ie, recurrent, nonresponsive, or chronic) otitis media (OM) is frequent and is often caused by a mixed-pathogen infection with biofilm formation. We conducted this study to characterize children with OM due to mixed Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections (M-OM) and those with OM due to single, S. pneumoniae-only infections (S-OM) and to examine whether pneumococcal serotypes associated with M-OM differed from those associated with S-OM.
Article Reference Extracellular DNA within a nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced biofilm binds human beta defensin-3 and reduces its antimicrobial activity.
Biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are associated with multiple chronic infections of the airway, including otitis media. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is part of the biofilm matrix and serves as a structural component. Human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is a cationic antimicrobial host defense protein (AMP) critical to the protection of the middle ear. We hypothesized that anionic eDNA could interact with and bind hBD-3 and thus shield NTHI in biofilms from its antimicrobial activity. We demonstrated that recombinant hBD-3 [(r)hBD-3] bound eDNA in vitro and that eDNA in biofilms produced by NTHI in the chinchilla middle ear co-localized with the orthologue of this AMP. Incubation of physiological concentrations of (r)hBD-3 with NTHI genomic DNA abrogated the ability of this innate immune effector to prevent NTHI from forming robust biofilms in vitro. Establishment of NTHI biofilms in the presence of both DNase I and (r)hBD-3 resulted in a marked reduction in the overall height and thickness of the biofilms and rescued the antimicrobial activity of the AMP. Our results demonstrated that eDNA in NTHI biofilms sequestered hBD-3 and thus diminished the biological activity of an important effector of innate immunity. Our observations have important implications for chronicity of NTHI-induced diseases.
Article Reference Kinetic analysis and evaluation of the mechanisms involved in the resolution of experimental nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced otitis media after transcutaneous immunization.
Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a simple and needle-free method with which to induce protective immune responses. Using a chinchilla model of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI)-induced otitis media (OM), we examined the efficacy afforded by TCI with a novel chimeric immunogen called 'chimV4' which targets two critical adhesins expressed by NTHI, outer membrane protein P5 and the majority subunit of NTHI Type IV pilus, PilA. Experimental OM was first established in cohorts of animals, and then TCI performed via a therapeutic immunization regime by rubbing vaccine formulations on hydrated pinnae. The kinetics of resolution of established experimental disease was evaluated by clinically-relevant assessments of OM, bacterial culture of planktonic and adherent NTHI within the middle ear and gross examination of the relative amount of NTHI mucosal biofilms within the middle ear space. Within seven days after primary TCI, a significant reduction in the signs of OM, significantly fewer NTHI adherent to the middle ear mucosa and significant resolution of mucosal biofilms was detected in animals that received chimV4+ the adjuvant LT(R192G-L211A), compared to animals administered LT(R192G-L211A) alone or saline by TCI (p<0.05) with eradication of NTHI within an additional seven days. The mechanism for rapid disease resolution involved efflux of activated dermal dendritic cells from the pinnae after TCI, secretion of factors chemotactic for CD4(+) T-cells, induction of polyfunctional IFNγ- and IL-17-producing CD4(+) T-cells and secretion of host defense peptide within the middle ear. These data support TCI as a therapeutic intervention against experimental NTHI-induced OM and begin to elucidate the host response to immunization by this noninvasive regimen.
Article Reference Differential response of gel-forming mucins to pathogenic middle ear bacteria.
To assess the differential response of the secretory gel forming mucins (GFM) to the most common bacterial pathogens causing otitis media, Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat), in a culture model of human middle ear epithelium (HMEEC).
Article Reference Genetic characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with conjunctivitis-otitis media syndrome.
Acute conjunctivitis is the most common ocular disorders among children and frequently concomitant with acute otitis media (AOM) as conjunctivitis-otitis syndrome. In this study, we evaluated prevalence of causative pathogens and PCR-based genotypes of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae among children with conjunctivitis-otitis media syndrome. Nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) is identified most often at 61.8% in conjunctiva exudates followed by S. pneumoniae at 28.2% and Moraxella catarrhalis at 19.1%. Genetic β-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin resistant (gBLNAR) strains of NTHi and genetic penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae (gPRSP) were identified at 72.1% and at 74.2% among conjunctiva isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Pneumococcal strains having either ermB or mefE genes were identified at 93.5% among conjunctiva isolates. The restriction fragment of patterns of 89.7% pairs of H. influenzae isolates and 100% pairs of pneumococcal isolates from conjunctiva exudates, middle ear fluids (MEFs) and nasopharyngeal swabs were identical. In contrast to the previous reports, most prevalent strains from conjunctivitis-otitis media syndrome was BLNAR H. influenzae in this study. The causative pathogen responsible for acute conjunctivitis will be originated from the nasopharynx. In the absence of MEFs one can possibly rely on the nasopharyngeal culture to guide an appropriate treatment.
Article Reference Results of a national study on the awareness of and attitudes toward acute otitis media (AOM) among clinicians and the estimated direct healthcare costs in Turkey (TR-AOM Study).
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequent diagnoses and reasons for prescribing antibiotics in children. The aims of this prospective study were the following: (1) to assess the continuing education of physicians and the sources of information about AOM; (2) to assess the current knowledge of and attitudes toward AOM as well as the compliance with AOM guidelines; (3) to evaluate opinions about vaccines against AOM; and (4) to estimate the potential costs of AOM on the healthcare system in Turkey.
Article Reference Otitis media associated polymorphisms in the hemin receptor HemR of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) colonize the human pharynx asymptomatically, and are also an important cause of otitis media (OM). Previous studies have demonstrated that some genes are more prevalent in OM-causing NTHi strains than in commensal strains, suggesting a role in virulence. These studies, however, are unable to investigate the possible associations between gene polymorphisms and disease. This study examined amino acid polymorphisms and sequence diversity in a potential virulence gene, the hemin receptor hemR, from a previously characterized NTHi strain collection containing both commensal and OM organisms to identify possible associations between the polymorphisms and otitis media. The full open reading frame of hemR was sequenced from a total of 146 NTHi isolates, yielding a total of 47 unique HemR amino acid sequences. The predicted structure of HemR showed substantial similarity to a class of monomeric TonB dependent, ligand-gated channels involved in iron acquisition in other gram negative bacteria. Fifteen amino acid polymorphisms were significantly more prevalent at the 90% confidence level among commensal compared to OM isolates. Upon controlling for the confounding effect of population structure, over half of the polymorphism-otitis media relationships lost statistical significance, emphasizing the importance of assessing the effect of population structure in association studies. The seven polymorphisms that retained significance were dispersed throughout the protein in various functional and structural domains, including the signal peptide, N-terminal plug domain, and intra- and extracellular loops. The alternate amino acid of only one of these seven polymorphisms was more common among OM isolates, demonstrating a strong trend toward the consensus sequence among disease causing NTHi. We hypothesize that variability at these positions in HemR may result in a reduced ability to acquire iron, rendering NTHi with such versions of the gene less fit for survival in the middle ear environment.
Article Reference Differential impact of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus on the frequency of acute otitis media is explained by lower adaptive and innate immune responses in otitis-prone children.
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of bacterial pediatric infections associated with viral upper respiratory infections (URIs). We examined the differential impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus URIs on the frequency of AOM caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in stringently defined otitis-prone (sOP) and non-otitis-prone (NOP) children as a potential mechanism to explain increased susceptibility to AOM.
Article Reference NTHi induction of Cxcl2 and middle ear mucosal metaplasia in mice.
Chronic otitis media (COM) develops after sustained inflammation and is characterized by secretory middle ear epithelial metaplasia and effusion, most frequently mucoid. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), the most common acute otitis media (OM) pathogen, is known to activate inflammation and mucin expression in vitro and in animal models of OM. The goals of this study were to examine histopathological and expression profiling epithelial effects of NTHi challenge in murine middle ears.
Article Reference Minimal biofilm eradication concentration of antimicrobial agents against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluids of intractable acute otitis media.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) makes the clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) intractable by forming a biofilm that may hamper the clearance of the bacteria from middle ear cavity. In this study, we evaluated the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming NTHi strains. Twelve NTHi strains isolated from middle ear fluids of Japanese children with intractable AOM before antimicrobial treatment were evaluated for MBEC of fluoroquinolones in comparison with those of β-lactams and macrolides. AMPC and CDTR required much higher concentration, i.e., high MBECs, to suppress the biofilm formation of NTHi. In contrast, fluoroquinolones followed by macrolides showed lower MBECs. MBEC would be a good parameter to infer the efficacies of antimicrobials against NTHi in biofilm.
Article Reference Panel 6: Vaccines.
To update progress on the effectiveness of vaccine for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and identification of promising candidate antigens against Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.
Article Reference Identification and characterization of the bacterial etiology of clinically problematic acute otitis media after tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea in German children.
Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is an important and common disease of childhood. Bacteria isolated from cases of clinically problematic AOM in German children were identified and characterized.
Article Reference Toxin-antitoxin loci vapBC-1 and vapXD contribute to survival and virulence in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a significant human pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections and the most common cause of recurrent otitis media. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements that code for a stable protein toxin and a labile antitoxin that are thought to be involved in metabolic regulation of bacteria by enabling a switch to a dormant state under stress conditions. The contribution to infection persistence of the NTHi TA loci vapBC-1 and vapXD was examined in this study.
Article Reference Transcriptome signature in young children with acute otitis media due to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) causes acute otitis media (AOM) in young children. In our recent paper in Microbes and Infection we described the transcriptome signature elicited from PBMCs at onset of AOM caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the current study we found very different results with NTHi AOM infections; 5.1% of 29&emsp14;187 genes were differentially regulated by more than 2-fold at the onset of AOM compared with the pre-infection healthy state in the same children. Among the 1487 transcripts, 100 genes associated with the immune defense response were specifically analyzed. About half of the differentially regulated genes associated with antibacterial activity and the cell-mediated immune response were activated and half were suppressed. The important signatures for NTHi in children suggested that the balance of the immune response was toward suppression. Moreover, 90% of the genes associated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine response were down-regulated. The genes associated with the classic complement pathway were down-regulated, although the alternative complement pathway genes were up-regulated. These results provide the first human transcriptome data identifying gene expression in the immune response to be predominantly down-regulated at the onset of AOM due to NTHi.
Article Reference Higher serum levels of interleukin 10 occur at onset of acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae compared to Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.
Acute otitis media (AOM) involves an inflammatory response to microbes in the middle ear that facilitates clearance of otopathogens. Clinically, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) infections of the respiratory tract are characterized by greater inflammatory responses than nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat). Interleukin 10 (IL-10) plays an important role in down-regulating the inflammatory response. We compared serum IL-10 levels in children before onset, at onset, and after recovery from AOM caused by Spn, NTHi, and Mcat. We sought to determine if IL-10 could serve as a biomarker to distinguish AOM caused by Spn versus NTHi and Mcat.
Article Reference Cellular immune response in young children accounts for recurrent acute otitis media.
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common disease in young children. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are the two most common pathogens that cause AOM. Over the past 5 years, our group has been studying the immunologic profile of children that experience repeated AOM infections despite tympanocentesis drainage of middle ear fluid and individualized antibiotic treatment; we call these children stringently-defined otitis prone(sOP). Although protection against AOM is primarily mediated by ototpathogen-specific antibody, our recent studies suggest that suboptimal memory B and T cell responses and an immaturity in antigen-presenting cells may play a significant role in the propensity to recurrent AOM infections. This review focuses on the studies performed to define immunologic dysfunction in sOP children.