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Article Reference Bactericidal activity of garenoxacin against in vitro biofilm formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Using β-lactamase-negative ampicillin (ABPC)-susceptible (BLNAS) and β-lactamase-negative ABPC-resistant (BLNAR) nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains isolated from otological patients, colony biofilm was prepared on membrane filter substrates. Bactericidal activities of garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), cefditoren (CDTR), and clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (CVA/AMPC) were examined by counting viable cells after drug exposure to biofilm cells for 6 and 24 h and by observation under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). After exposure of biofilm to the 100-fold MIC of GRNX or LVFX for 24 h, GRNX and LVFX showed potent bactericidal activity (∆log10 CFU/ml, ≥5.1). In this case, the drug-exposure AUC, exposure concentration × 24 μg h/ml, was 64-128 % for GRNX and 121 % for LVFX of free AUC at the clinical dosage in humans, respectively. CDTR and CVA/AMPC at 100-fold MIC exhibited little bactericidal activity against biofilm cells. Under an SEM, after exposure of BLNAS and BLNAR biofilms to GRNX or LVFX, most of the biofilm matrices were transformed. Quinolones such as GRNX show potent bactericidal activity against biofilm-forming NTHi at the usual clinical dosage.
Article Reference Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae: living together in a biofilm.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are both commensals of the human nasopharynx with an ability to migrate to other niches within the human body to cause various diseases of the upper respiratory tract such as pneumonia, otitis media and bronchitis. They have long been detected together in a multispecies biofilm in infected tissue. However, an understanding of their interplay is a recent field of study, and while over recent years, there has been research that has identified many specific elements important in these biofilms, to date, it remains questionable whether the relationship between H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is competitive or cooperative. Additionally, the factors that govern the nature of the interspecies interaction are still undefined. This review aims to collate the information that has emerged on the cocolonization and co-infection by S. pneumoniae and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) and their formation of a multispecies biofilm.
Article Reference Antibodies directed against integration host factor mediate biofilm clearance from Nasopore.
Intranasal resorbable packing, such as Nasopore, is commonly used during sinus surgery despite a paucity of evidence that demonstrates clinical benefit. We theorized that Nasopore supports bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The DNABII family of bacterial nucleic acid binding proteins stabilizes the extracellular polymeric substance of the biofilm, thus protecting bacteria from host defenses and traditional antibiotics. We tested the hypothesis that use of anti-IHF antibodies in conjunction with antibiotics would enhance biofilm eradication from Nasopore.
Article Reference Increased biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with invasive disease or otitis media versus strains recovered from cases of respiratory infections.
Biofilm formation by nontypeable (NT) Haemophilus influenzae remains a controversial topic. Nevertheless, biofilm-like structures have been observed in the middle-ear mucosa of experimental chinchilla models of otitis media (OM). To date, there have been no studies of biofilm formation in large collections of clinical isolates. This study aimed to investigate the initial adhesion to a solid surface and biofilm formation by NT H. influenzae by comparing isolates from healthy carriers, those with noninvasive respiratory disease, and those with invasive respiratory disease. We used 352 isolates from patients with nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (NB-CAP), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), OM, and invasive disease and a group of healthy colonized children. We then determined the speed of initial adhesion to a solid surface by the BioFilm ring test and quantified biofilm formation by crystal violet staining. Isolates from different clinical sources displayed high levels of biofilm formation on a static solid support after growth for 24 h. We observed clear differences in initial attachment and biofilm formation depending on the pathology associated with NT H. influenzae isolation, with significantly increased biofilm formation for NT H. influenzae isolates collected from patients with invasive disease and OM compared with NT H. influenzae isolates from patients with NB-CAP or COPD and healthy colonized subjects. In all cases, biofilm structures were detached by proteinase K treatment, suggesting an important role for proteins in the initial adhesion and static biofilm formation measured by crystal violet staining.
Article Reference Inhibition of otopathogenic biofilms by organoselenium-coated tympanostomy tubes.
Tube occlusion and post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO) are 2 major sequelae of tympanostomy tube placement. Plugging negates the function of the tympanostomy tubes and, along with chronic PTTO, can be financially burdensome owing to repeated surgical procedures and additional treatments.