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Article Reference Molecular epidemiology of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae causing community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen which causes a variety of respiratory infections. The objectives of the study were to determine its antimicrobial susceptibility, to characterize the β-lactam resistance, and to establish a genetic characterization of NTHi isolates. Ninety-five NTHi isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution, and the ftsI gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, PBP3) was PCR amplified and sequenced. Thirty (31.6%) isolates were non-susceptible to ampicillin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/L), with 10 of them producing β-lactamase type TEM-1 as a resistance mechanism. After ftsI sequencing, 39 (41.1%) isolates showed amino acid substitutions in PBP3, with Asn526 → Lys being the most common (69.2%). Eighty-four patients were successfully treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin. Eight patients died due either to aspiration or complication of their comorbidities. In conclusion, NTHi causing CAP in adults shows high genetic diversity and is associated with a high rate of reduced susceptibility to ampicillin due to alterations in PBP3. The analysis of treatment and outcomes demonstrated that NTHi strains with mutations in the ftsI gene could be successfully treated with ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones.
Article Reference A prospective, observational, epidemiological evaluation of the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of acute otitis media in Saudi children younger than 5years of age.
Information regarding acute otitis media (AOM) aetiology is important for developing effective vaccines. Here, bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM were determined in young Saudi children.
Article Reference Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. COPD is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people. However, they can cause opportunistic infection. An oral NTHi vaccine has been developed to protect against recurrent infective acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis.
Article Reference Epidemiology and evolution of antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in children 5 years of age or less in France, 2001-2008: a retrospective database analysis.
Trends in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and mechanisms of resistance of Haemophilus influenzae to β-lactam antibiotics in France were assessed through a retrospective database review. The antimicrobial resistance of 2,206 H. influenzae strains from children aged ≤5 years was studied between 2001 and 2008. Strains were isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid (n = 170), bronchial secretions (n = 188), middle ear fluid, and nasopharynx or conjunctiva (n = 1,848). A proportion of 95.1 % (n = 2,097) were non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). β-lactamase production was identified in 27.5 % of NTHi isolates (all TEM-1), while β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance and β-lactamase-negative amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance among NTHi was 16.9 and 6.4 %, respectively. Over time, a statistically significant decrease in β-lactamase-producing strain prevalence (p < 0.0001) and a statistically significant increase in β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains (p < 0.0001) were observed in NTHi isolates from 2001 to 2008. The largest changes coincided with a campaign to reduce antibiotic use in France. An increasing diversity of amino acid substitution patterns was observed, with the emergence of group III/'III-like' patterns linked to high-level resistance. In France, amino acid substitution patterns are increasingly diverse, and strains with high-level antibiotic resistance are emerging. This study highlights the complexity of resistance dynamics within a given country. These results have implications on antibiotic guidelines and illustrate the importance of continued surveillance.
Article Reference Acute otitis media otopathogens during 2008 to 2010 in Rochester, New York.
The otopathogen distribution colonizing the nasopharynx (NP) and causing acute otitis media (AOM) is in flux following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) and will continue to change.
Article Reference The biofilm matrix destabilizers, EDTA and DNaseI, enhance the susceptibility of nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae biofilms to treatment with ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.
Nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes chronic biofilm infections of the ears and airways. The biofilm matrix provides structural integrity to the biofilm and protects biofilm cells from antibiotic exposure by reducing penetration of antimicrobial compounds into the biofilm. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been found to be a major matrix component of biofilms formed by many species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including NTHi. Interestingly, the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) has been shown to reduce the matrix strength of biofilms of several bacterial species as well as to have bactericidal activity against various pathogens. EDTA exerts its antimicrobial activity by chelating divalent cations necessary for growth and membrane stability and by destabilizing the matrix thus enhancing the detachment of bacterial cells from the biofilm. In this study, we have explored the role of divalent cations in NTHi biofilm development and stability. We have utilized in vitro static and continuous flow models of biofilm development by NTHi to demonstrate that magnesium cations enhance biofilm formation by NTHi. We found that the divalent cation chelator EDTA is effective at both preventing NTHi biofilm formation and at treating established NTHi biofilms. Furthermore, we found that the matrix destablilizers EDTA and DNaseI increase the susceptibility of NTHi biofilms to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Our observations indicate that DNaseI and EDTA enhance the efficacy of antibiotic treatment of NTHi biofilms. These observations may lead to new strategies that will improve the treatment options available to patients with chronic NTHi infections.
Article Reference Group A streptococci are protected from amoxicillin-mediated killing by vesicles containing β-lactamase derived from Haemophilus influenzae.
Group A streptococci (GAS) cause, among other infections, pharyngotonsillitis in children. The species is frequently localized with the Gram-negative respiratory pathogens non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis, which both produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether OMVs isolated from NTHi contain functional β-lactamase and whether the OMVs hydrolyse amoxicillin and thus protect GAS from killing by the antibiotic.
Article Reference Comparison study of single and concurrent administrations of carbapenem, new quinolone, and macrolide against in vitro nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae mature biofilms.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen and a common cause of otitis media in children, chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many studies have reported that NTHi is capable of producing biofilms, which may be one of the important factors involved in chronic diseases and accelerating antimicrobial resistance. Unfortunately, there is still no consensus about the elimination of biofilms. In this study, concurrent administrations of levofloxacin (LVFX)-imipenem (IPM) and clarithromycin (CAM)-IPM, as well as the single administration of IPM, LVFX, and CAM, were performed to treat the mature biofilms produced by NTHi, respectively. Biofilm inhibition was quantified using microtiter biofilm assay (MBA), and relative biomass was calculated as the ratio compared to that of untreated control biofilms. The relative biomasses of biofilms treated with IPM, LVFX-IPM, and CAM-IPM against a β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain was 1.10, 0.08, and 0.13 at 1× minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 0.90, 0.05, and 0.07 at 10× MIC, and 0.80, 0.06, and 0.07 at 100× MIC, respectively. Biofilms were also visually observed by scanning electron microscopy, and a focused ion-beam system showed that high concentrations of combined administration strongly inhibited the biofilms, which was consistent with the results of MBA. Our data demonstrated the antibiofilm effect of concurrent administration against mature NTHi biofilms, which indicated a rationale for the potential use of concurrent administrations in diseases involving chronic NTHi biofilms.
Article Reference Epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of culture-proven acute otitis media in Taiwanese children.
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in children. Here, we describe the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of AOM in Taiwanese children over a 10-year period.
Article Reference Results of a national study on the awareness of and attitudes toward acute otitis media (AOM) among clinicians and the estimated direct healthcare costs in Turkey (TR-AOM Study).
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequent diagnoses and reasons for prescribing antibiotics in children. The aims of this prospective study were the following: (1) to assess the continuing education of physicians and the sources of information about AOM; (2) to assess the current knowledge of and attitudes toward AOM as well as the compliance with AOM guidelines; (3) to evaluate opinions about vaccines against AOM; and (4) to estimate the potential costs of AOM on the healthcare system in Turkey.
Article Reference Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended.
Article Reference Minimal biofilm eradication concentration of antimicrobial agents against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluids of intractable acute otitis media.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) makes the clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) intractable by forming a biofilm that may hamper the clearance of the bacteria from middle ear cavity. In this study, we evaluated the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming NTHi strains. Twelve NTHi strains isolated from middle ear fluids of Japanese children with intractable AOM before antimicrobial treatment were evaluated for MBEC of fluoroquinolones in comparison with those of β-lactams and macrolides. AMPC and CDTR required much higher concentration, i.e., high MBECs, to suppress the biofilm formation of NTHi. In contrast, fluoroquinolones followed by macrolides showed lower MBECs. MBEC would be a good parameter to infer the efficacies of antimicrobials against NTHi in biofilm.
Article Reference Impact of recent antibiotics on nasopharyngeal carriage and lower airway infection in Indigenous Australian children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.
Indigenous Australian children have increased rates of bronchiectasis. Despite a lack of high-level evidence on effectiveness and antibiotic resistance, these children often receive long-term antibiotics. In this study, we determined the impact of recent macrolide (primarily azithromycin) and β-lactam antibiotic use on nasopharyngeal colonisation, lower airway infection (>10(4) CFU/mL of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture) and antibiotic resistance in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from 104 Indigenous children with radiographically confirmed bronchiectasis. Recent antibiotic use was associated with significantly reduced nasopharyngeal carriage, especially of S. pneumoniae in 39 children who received macrolides [odds ratio (OR)=0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.63] and 26 children who received β-lactams (OR=0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.32), but had no significant effect on lower airway infection involving any of the three pathogens. Children given macrolides were significantly more likely to carry (OR=4.58, 95% CI 1.14-21.7) and be infected by (OR=8.13, 95% CI 1.47-81.3) azithromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Children who received β-lactam antibiotics may be more likely to have lower airway infection with β-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant NTHi (OR=4.40, 95% CI 0.85-23.9). The risk of lower airway infection by antibiotic-resistant pathogens in children receiving antibiotics is of concern. Clinical trials to determine the overall benefit of long-term antibiotic therapy are underway.
Article Reference Innate immune properties of selected human neuropeptides against Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Considerable evidence supports the concept of active communication between the nervous and immune systems. One class of such communicators are the neuropeptides (NPs). Recent reports have highlighted the antimicrobial activity of neuropeptides, placing them among the integral components of innate immune defense. This study examined the action of four human neuropeptides: calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and somatostatin (SOM), which are accessible in the upper respiratory tract, against two human-specific respiratory pathogens. We studied: (i) neuropeptide-mediated direct antibacterial activity exerted against Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and (ii) indirect immunomodulatory role of these neuropeptides in the neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of indicated pathogens.
Article Reference Haemophilus influenzae in children with cystic fibrosis: antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular epidemiology, distribution of adhesins and biofilm formation.
Haemophilus influenzae commonly infects the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), early in childhood. In this investigation, 79 H. influenzae isolates were recovered from the respiratory secretions of 64 CF patients (median age: 5 years) included in a 5-year follow-up study. Fifteen of the 64 patients contributed two or more H. influenzae isolates overtime. Serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing, genotyping, detection of both hmwA and hia adhesin genes and hypermutable strains was carried out. Biofilm formation ability was investigated. Most strains (72/79, 91.2%) were nonencapsulated or nontypeable (NTHi). Resistance to ampicillin (13.9%) and imipenem (17.7%) was the most detected. Few isolates (2.5%) exhibited the hypermutable phenotype. The NTHi strains showed 55 different genotypes, but 19 clusters of closely related strains were identified. Nine clusters included strains that cross-colonised several patients over a long-time period (mean: 3.7 years). Most patients with sequential isolates harboured strains genetically unrelated, but persistent colonisation with the same clone was observed in 37.5% of patients. Over 45% of NTHi strains contained hmwA-related sequences, 26.3%, hia, 8.3% both hmwA and hia, while 19.4% lacked both. A significant association was found between occurrence of an adhesive gene (irrespective of which) and both persistence (P<0.0001) and long-term cross-colonisation (P<0.0001). Mean biofilm level formed by the persistent strains was found significantly increased compared to non-persistent ones (P<0.0001). Hia-positive strains produced significantly more biofilm than hmwA-carrying strains (P<0.01). Although a high turnover of NTHi strains in FC patients was observed, distinct clones with increased capacity of persistence or cross-colonisation occurred.
Article Reference Pathogens implicated in acute otitis media failures after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in France: distribution, serotypes, and resistance levels.
Before 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) implementation in France, several studies had described the microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) treatment failures. The causative pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) followed by nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of pathogens involved in AOM treatment failures or recurrences.
Article Reference Invasive polyarticular septic arthritis caused by nontypeable haemophilus influenzae in a young adult: a case report and literature review.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a rare cause of septic arthritis in adults and has been reported to be associated with underlying medical conditions. We present a case of nontypeable H. influenzae-infected severe invasive polyarticular septic arthritis in a young adult without any underlying predisposing medical conditions. Diagnosis was made from both positive blood culture and joint aspiration culture. The patient was successfully treated with employment of aggressive surgical debridement of multiple affected septic joints as well as prolonged antibiotic treatment. Further laboratory testing did not reveal significant underlying medical conditions including negative HIV, normal levels of complement and IgG subclasses, and normal-appearing spleen on computed tomography. This case illustrates that nontypeable H. influenzae can cause serious invasive septic arthritis infection in both patients with and without predisposing underlying medical conditions and that prompt diagnosis with aggressive treatment of combined surgical and medical treatment can result in optimal recovery.
Article Reference Phylogenetic relatedness and diversity of non-typable Haemophilus influenzae in the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media.
The phylogenetic relationships of non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains prospectively isolated from healthy children and children with acute otitis media (AOM) were analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 165 NTHi isolates were collected over a 3.5 year time frame during 2006 through 2009. The strains were tested for β-lactamase production; 28.5% were positive. Seventy different NTHi sequence types (STs) were identified of which 29 (41.4%) were novel. NTHi strains did not show any phylogenetic grouping or clustering among asymptomatic colonizing strains or strains that caused AOM, or based on β-lactamase enzyme production. Evaluation of triplets and other siblings over time demonstrated relatively frequent genetic exchanges in NTHi isolates in vivo in a short time frame and subsequent transfer among children in a family. Comparison of the MLST STs isolated at different time points showed that in 85% of the nasopharynx (NP) colonizations, NTHi strains cleared from the host within 3 months, that sequential colonization in the same child involved different strains in all cases except one, and that NP and middle ear isolates were identical STs in 84% of cases. In this first study of its type to our knowledge, we could not identify predominant MLST types among strains colonizing the NP versus those causing AOM or expressing a β-lactamase enzyme conferring penicillin resistance in children.
Article Reference Meningitis and septicemia caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly colonizes the upper respiratory tract of children and causes otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchitis. Invasive NTHi diseases such as meningitis and septicemia have rarely been reported, especially in children with underlying predisposing conditions such as head trauma and immune compromise. However, we report a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who developed meningitis and septicemia caused by NTHi biotype ΙΙΙ. She was treated with dexamethasone, meropenem, and ceftriaxone, and recovered uneventfully. We wish to emphasize that NTHi should be borne in mind as a potential pathogen that can cause meningitis and septicemia, even in previously healthy children.
Article Reference Divergent mechanisms for passive pneumococcal resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in the presence of Haemophilus influenzae.
Otitis media, for which antibiotic treatment failure is increasingly common, is a leading pediatric public health problem.