You are here: Home Published Research Invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae in Sweden 1997-2009; evidence of increasing incidence and clinical burden of non-type b strains.

F. Resman, M. Ristovski, J. Ahl, A. Forsgren, J. R Gilsdorf, A. Jasir, B. Kaijser, G. Kronvall, and K. Riesbeck (2011)

Invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae in Sweden 1997-2009; evidence of increasing incidence and clinical burden of non-type b strains.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 17(11):1638–1645.

Introduction of a conjugated vaccine against encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has led to a dramatic reduction of invasive Hib disease. However, an increasing incidence of invasive disease by H. influenzae non-type b has recently been reported. Non-type b strains have been suggested to be opportunists in an invasive context, but information on clinical consequences and related medical conditions is scarce. In this retrospective study, all H. influenzae isolates (n = 410) from blood and cerebrospinal fluid in three metropolitan Swedish regions between 1997 and 2009 from a population of approximately 3 million individuals were identified. All available isolates were serotyped by PCR (n = 250). We observed a statistically significant increase in the incidence of invasive H. influenzae disease, ascribed to non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) and encapsulated strains type f (Hif) in mainly individuals >60 years of age. The medical reports from a subset of 136 cases of invasive Haemophilus disease revealed that 48% of invasive NTHi cases and 59% of invasive Hif cases, respectively, met the criteria of severe sepsis or septic shock according to the ACCP/SCCM classification of sepsis grading. One-fifth of invasive NTHi cases and more than one-third of invasive Hif cases were admitted to intensive care units. Only 37% of patients with invasive non-type b disease had evidence of immunocompromise, of which conditions related to impaired humoral immunity was the most common. The clinical burden of invasive non-type b H. influenzae disease, measured as days of hospitalization/100 000 individuals at risk and year, increased significantly throughout the study period.

Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Bacteremia, Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Haemophilus Infections, Haemophilus influenzae, Hospitalization, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Male, Meningitis, Haemophilus, Middle Aged, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Retrospective Studies, Serotyping, Sweden, Urban Population, Young Adult
Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Bacteremia, Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Haemophilus Infections, Haemophilus influenzae, Hospitalization, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Male, Meningitis, Haemophilus, Middle Aged, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Retrospective Studies, Serotyping, Sweden, Urban Population, Young Adult
 
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