You are here: Home Published Research Cigarette smoke exposure exacerbates lung inflammation and compromises immunity to bacterial infection.

Amit A Lugade, Paul N Bogner, Thomas H Thatcher, Patricia J Sime, Richard P Phipps, and Yasmin Thanavala (2014)

Cigarette smoke exposure exacerbates lung inflammation and compromises immunity to bacterial infection.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 192(11):5226–5235.

The detrimental impact of tobacco on human health is clearly recognized, and despite aggressive efforts to prevent smoking, close to one billion individuals worldwide continue to smoke. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are susceptible to recurrent respiratory infections with pathogens, including nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), yet the reasons for this increased susceptibility are poorly understood. Because mortality rapidly increases with multiple exacerbations, development of protective immunity is critical to improving patient survival. Acute NTHI infection has been studied in the context of cigarette smoke exposure, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate chronic infection and the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI after chronic smoke exposure. After chronic NTHI infection, mice that had previously been exposed to cigarette smoke developed increased lung inflammation and compromised adaptive immunity relative to air-exposed controls. Importantly, NTHI-specific T cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and B cells produced reduced levels of Abs against outer-membrane lipoprotein P6, with impaired IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA class switching. However, production of IL-17, which is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, was enhanced. Interestingly, cigarette smoke-exposed mice exhibited a similar defect in the generation of adaptive immunity after immunization with P6. Our study has conclusively demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure has a profound suppressive effect on the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI and suggests the mechanism by which prior cigarette smoke exposure predisposes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to recurrent infections, leading to exacerbations and contributing to mortality.

Adaptive Immunity, Animals, B-Lymphocytes, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins, Chronic Disease, Female, Haemophilus Infections, Haemophilus influenzae, Humans, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin G, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-4, Mice, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Smoking, Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Adaptive Immunity, Animals, B-Lymphocytes, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins, Chronic Disease, Female, Haemophilus Infections, Haemophilus influenzae, Humans, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin G, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-4, Mice, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Smoking, Tobacco Smoke Pollution
 
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