You are here: Home Published Research Respiratory syncytial virus promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental otitis media.

M. E Brockson, Laura A Novotny, Joseph A Jurcisek, Glen McGillivary, Martha R Bowers, and Lauren O Bakaletz (2012)

Respiratory syncytial virus promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental otitis media.

PloS one, 7(6):e40088.

Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis.

Acoustic Impedance Tests, Animals, Bacterial Adhesion, Biofilms, Chinchilla, Ear, Middle, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Mucous Membrane, Nasopharynx, Otitis Media, Otoscopy, Respiratory Syncytial Viruses, Video Recording
Acoustic Impedance Tests, Animals, Bacterial Adhesion, Biofilms, Chinchilla, Ear, Middle, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Mucous Membrane, Nasopharynx, Otitis Media, Otoscopy, Respiratory Syncytial Viruses, Video Recording
 
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